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SANTALI PRIMER 



BY THE 

REV. F. T. COLE, 

C. M. S. MISSIONARY, 

BARHAEWA, E. 1. R. 




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PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE SANTAL MISSION PRESS, { 
POKHURIA, — MANBHUM. 



1896. 




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SANTALI PRIMER 

BY THE 

REV, F. T. COLE, 

C. M. S. MISSIONARY, 

BAEHABWA, E. I. E. 



PRINTBD AND PUBLISHED BT THE SANTAL MISSION PRESS, 
POKHUEIA, — MANBHUM. 

1896. 



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PREFACE. 



An attempt has been made in this Santali Primer 
to clear up some of the diflBculties experienced by beginners 
in their first eflforts to acquire this difficult and idiomatic 
language. 

Just twenty years ago the Author made a similar 
attempt to compile a Primer, but about that time a 
valuable Grammar was published by Mr. Skrefsrud, so the 
idea was given up. 

However, as many have found that work rather too 
elaborate, and have expressed a wish for some simpler 
Introduction to Santali, the Author has had the courage 
to oflFer this little Primer, hoping that it will meet that 
want. 

In Santali we plunge at once into difficulties. It is 
in) possible to begin with simple monosyllabic sentences 
for the reason that there are none to be found in Santali. 
The simplest things are often the most difficult to express 
in this language. Santali belongs to the Agglutinative 
class of languages, hence nearly every syllable is a word, 
and every word a sentence. 



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( ii ) 

The student, therefore, must not be surprised to find 
some illustrations used at the commencement of this 
Primer that have themselves to be explained in a subse- 
quent part. 

My best thanks are due to Sir Alfred Croft, the Director 
of Public Instruction, for the grant-in-aid towards the 
cost of publishing this Santal Primer. 

Barharwa, F. T. cole, 

K I. Railway. Christmas 1896. 



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CONTENTS. 




[;!hap 


>ter. 


Page. 


1. 


The Alphabet ... 


1 


2. 


Parts of Speech 


3 


3. 


The Article 


4 


4. 


Substantives 


4 


5. 


Prepositions, or rather Postpositions . 


11 


6. 


Conjunctions' 


11 


7. 


Numerals 


12 


8. 


Abstract Nouns 


13 


9. 


Table of verbal Terminations 


14 


10. 


Adjectives 


14 


11. 


On the Comparison of Adjectives 


15 


11a 


Adverbs 


18 


12. 


Interjections 


21 


13. 


Pronouns 


22 


14. 


Possessive Pronouns 


24 


15. 


Shortened forms of Pronouns 


26 


16. 


Demonstrative Pronouns ... 


27 


17. 


Interrogative Pronouns ... 


29 


18. 


Relative Pronouns 


31 




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( ii ) 



Chapter. 


Page, 


19. 


Dative Pronouns 


33 


20. 


On the Termination " a' " . . . 


33 


21. 


Paradigm of Pronouns inserted into th< 


3 




Verb 


34 


22. 


The Verb 


37 


23. 


Paradigm of Tense Terminations 


38 


24. 


Paradigm of an Intransitive Verb 


39 


25. 


Voices 


43 


26. 


Paradigm of " sajS " to catch 


46 


27. 


On the force of the Tenses 


51 


28. 


Paradigm of Active, Middle and Passive 






Verbs 


58a 


29. 


Keciprocal Verbs 


69 


30. 


Irregular or Defective Verbs 


69 


31. 


Impersonal Verbs 


71 


32. 


The Subjunctive Mood ... 


72 


3a 


Conditional sentences 


74 


34. 


Conditional sentences, with a Dative 






Pronoun 


76 


35. 


On the Particle ''dare " in Composition 


78 


36. 


On the Particles, "ane:, ene:, nahi, ban' 


79 


37. 


Potential Mood 


79 


38. 


The Infinitive Mood 


80 


39. 


Imperative Mood 


82 


• • 


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( iii ) 




Chapter. 


Page. 


40. 


Paradigm of the Imperative Mood 


84 


41. 


Changes in Roots of Verbs 


84 


42. 


Table shewing the various forms of the 






Future tense and their special meanings 


86 


43. 


Paradigm of " lai " to tell 


88 


44. 


Participles 


91 


45. 


Nouns of agency 


92 


46. 


On the Particle " aka" ... 


93 


47. 


On the forms "akawa" and "akawan" ... 


95 


48. 


On the Particles " ka " and " ka' " 


95 


49. 


On the Particles " ke " and " ko' " 


96 


50. 


On the Termination " kada " 


98 


51. 


On the Tense endings " kat " and " kan " 


100 


52. 


Strong Affirmations 


101 


53. 


On the Particles " co " and "con" ... 


102 


54. 


Idiomatic use of the Pronoun * 


103 


55. 


Adverbial Particles 


105 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Chapter I. THE ALPHABET. 

We have adopted the use of the Roman character in 
writing this Santali Primer, believing it to be the one 
more generally understood. 

A few diacritical marks are also used which need some 
explanation. 

a has to do duty for both the long and short " a" ; as, 
" dal" to strike (long) and " langA," weary (short). 

a this resembles somewhat the pronunciation of the 
vowel in " bird" when spoken in an aflfected tone. 

e " ape," you, (long), " tehen," to-day (short) the '* e " 
of the latter word is far more like an " i" than 
an"e". 

i as " si" to plough. In the case of dipthongs this letter 
is slightly modified by the preceding vowel, as 
in " badai" to know, . " badai" to boast. The 
diphthong is pronounced like the Hindustani 
word " hai" or the English word " die ". 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

o Unfortunately this letter has to be used for two dis- 
tinct sounds, but hitherto we have not been 
able to adopt any special diacritical sign to 
distinguishone from the other, as " hoyo' " to 
become, and " hoyo' " to shave. It is not simply 
a lengthened sound. 

a, 6, i, 5, a, are nazalized vowels. 

c pronounced like ch in church. 

eh the above aspirated. 

n as ng in king. 

ii as gn in Senor, Spanish. 

r is much clearer and more ringing than the English 
" r ". It is necessary to pronounce this letter 
carefully to prevent a confusion of words, for 
example "johar" salaam, may be confounded 
with " joha " a cheek. 

r This has no equivalent in English, but is formed by 
turning the tongue up to the roof of the mouth 
m the pronunciation of *' r," and then bringing 
it rapidly forward. 

The two syllables ar — la pronounced quickly may 
help the student to acquire this peculiar sound. 

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SANTAJLI GRAMMAR. H 

It occurs constantly in Santali, e. g., 

hor a way, hor a man. 

horo a tortoise. horo rice. 

horo' to dress. horo' to become a man. 

t and d are dentals ; softer than the corresponding 
English letters. 

t and d are cerebrals ; harder than in English. 

The following signs are used to express semi-consonants. 

: as he: to come becomes hiju'. 

' „ ro' to sew „ rogo'. 

i „ ce£ to learn „ cedo*. 

p „ ap to wash „ abo*. 

Chapter II. PARTS OF SPEECH. 

The difference in the Parts of Speech is much less dis- 
tinctly marked in Santali than in English. Santali belongs 
to the Agglutinative class of languages. The same word 
may be either a verb, substantive, adjective or an adverb 
in composition. Nearly every word can be made into a 
verb by aflSxing the verbal terminations, as ; 

" sim " a fowl ; " simkefkoae," he kept fowls. 

" Hiranpur" name of a village, " Hiranpurkedina" He 
placed me at Hiranpur, literally, He Hiranpured me. 

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4 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Chapter III. THE ARTICLK 

There is no Article io Santali. The Santals affix a 
demonstrative pronoun to the noun instead ; as, '' uni hor " 
that man, or " the man". 

The Indefinite Article is usually expressed by the word 
" mi£ " meaning " one", as, " mi^ hor" one man. Sometimes 
the fuller form "mii gote: " is used ; as, mit' gote: sadoni, 
a horse. 

Chapter IV. SUBSTANTIVES. 

To Nouns belong Gender, Number and Case. 

I. Gender. 

Nouns have three genders, the Masculine, Feminine and 
Neuter. Pronouns and verbs make no distinction be- 
tween the masculine and feminine genders, but this is not 
the case with regard to nouns and adjectives. Names 
of males are of course masculine, and those of females femi- 
nine. But, taken as a whole, we may divide the gender 
into two classes. Common and Neuter. It is easier to desig- 
nate the former as Animate, and the latter as Inanimate. 

There are three methods of distinguishing sex ; viz., 
1. By diflference of word, 
herel a man. maijiu a woman, 

kada a male buffalo, bitkil a female buffalo, 

dangra an ox. gai a cow. . 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

2. By diflference of termination. 



kora 


a boy. 


kuri 


a girl. 


bheda 


a ram. 


bhidi 


a ewe. 


budha 


an old man. 


budhi 


an old woman 



3. By adding a word indicative of gender. 

andia sadom a stallion, enga sadom a mare, 

andia kul a tiger. kul enga a tigress, 

sim sandi a cock. sim enga a hen. 

II. Number. 

Santal nouns have three numbers ; the Singular, Dual, 
and Plural. The Dual is formed by adding " kin " to the 
singular, as, "hako** a fish ;"hakokin/' two fishes. The plu- 
ral is formed by the addition of " ko " as, " hakoko," three or 
more fishes. 

The word " bar " or " barea " meaning "two" is fre- 
quently used to express the Dual. It is specially so in the 
case of neuter nouns. 

Barea oya' mena'taea. He has two houses. 

Occasionally the Dual sign " kin " is inserted before the 
noun, as, " onakin ora ", those two houses. 

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6 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Nouns of kindred generally prefix " te " to the signs of 
the Dual and Plural, as ; 

" dadamtekin," your two elder brothers. 

" apuilteko," my father and those with him, 

III. Case. 

As the Santali language has no Inflexions, it is extremely 
difficult to mark the cases. We have arranged, however, 
the Prepositions, or rather Postpositions, in such a way that 
the various cases may be distinguished. The Declension 
may be said to consist of eight cases. 





Declension. 






Hor, a man. 




Nominative 


hor 


a man. 


Genitive 


hor ren, rea*, rean, a' 


of a man. 


Dative 


hor then, te 


to a man. 


Accusative 


hor 


a ma,n. 


Vocative 


E hor, Eho, Henda, &c. 


man ! 


Ablative 


hor khon, kho:, khonan, 


from a man. 


Locative 


hor re 


in a man. 


Instrumental 


hor te, iate, hotete 


by a man. 


The Dual and Plural need not be written. The only tbingi 



to remember is to add " kin *^ affcer the noun for the Dual| 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 7 

and " ko " for the Plural, as ; 

Horkinreo sadom. The horse belonging to the two men. 
Horko ren merom. The goat of the people. 

1. The Nominative has no case sign, it is not inflected, 

Dahar do osargia. The road is wide. 
Merom boloakanae. The goat has entered. 

2. The Genitive case is known by the affix " ren " when 
the noun following it is Animate, as ; 

Atoren hor. The man of the village. 

Maijiuren gidra. The woman's child. 

But when the noun or subject following is Inanimate, 
then the Genitive may be known by the case sign " rea', 
rean, a' ", as ; 

Khet rea' ghas. The grass of the field. 

Ora' rea' silpiii. The door of the house. 

Herela' ot. The husband's land. 

Uni rea' do bail badaia. I know nothing of him, i. e, 

about him. 

There is another affix which sometimes may be transla- 
ted by the Preposition " of" viz ; " lei " Apatteti do banugia, 
His father is not ; either, not here, or is dead. 

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S SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

3. The Dative may be distinguished by the Postposi- 
tions " then "" te ". 

Gorate. To the stable. 

Apuii theniil senlena. I went to my father. 

Onko then mena'a. It is with them. 

Though these are given as Datives, it may be ques- 
tioned whether they ought really to be called such. The 
real sense of the Dative case is that something is given 
to or done for some one; neither of the above examples 
convey these ideas. The reason is, the Santals have an 
easy method of inserting a Dative pronoun into the middle 
of the verb, in consequence of which there is no special 
need to add a postposition to express the idea. e. g. 
" Emakoae ", He will give to them. 

4. The Accusative is the same as the Nominative ; as, 
"Kadako dalkedea", they beat the buffalo. The same 
Avord written in the same order may also be Nominative, 
as, '' Kadako jomkeda '', the buffaloes ate. 

Owing to the peculiar idiom of the language it is at 
times extremely difficult to know whether a noun or pro- 
noun is in the Nominative or Accusative case. 

The general rule in the construction of sentences is 
to put the Nominative first, and the Accusative afterwards ; 
but when there is no likelihood of the ppeaker being 
misunderstood, the accusative is often put first. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 9 

5 The Vocative case is known by its having an Inter- 
jection prefixed, e. g. E Baba, or, as in the case of proper 
nouns, by simply naming the person. 

Bhairo, cala'me ! Go, Bhairo ! 

EBaba! O Sir ! 

Eho Pan^u ! O Pandu ! 

Eya Babu ! O child ! Used to one younger 

than the speaker. 
' Ena mai ! Used in addressing a girl younger 

than the speaker. 

Hiju'me na ! Come, girl ! 

Hiju'me ya ! Come boy ! 

6. The Ablative is known by the following case signs ; 
" khon ", " kho: ", " khonan" signifying ''from", 

Ora' khone senakana. He has gone from the house. 

7. The Locative is recognized by the postpositions 
" re " in or on, and " te " towards, as ; 

Ora're menaea. He is in the house. 

Buruteye senakana. He has gone to the mountain. 

8. The Instrumental may be known by the affixes " te," 
" iate," " hotete", all conveying the idea " by means of." 

Thengateko dalkedida. They struck me with a stick. 

Pandu iated ^amkedea. I got it through, or on ac- 
count of Pandu. 
Onko gidra iate id akridleda. I sold it for the sake of 

the children. 

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10 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Hor then khona'. 

Buru ren dadgra. 

Thengate. 

Horkoa' cas. 

Kharai khon. 

Ora're. 

Gadi iate. 

Da' hotete. 

Hasarean bhajan. 

Pnkhrite. 

Mihutel 

Kada then. 

Hendago ! 

In then khona'. 

Gada da'ren. 

Uni samanre. 
Dhartire. 



Exercise 1. 

From the road. 

An ox of the hill, i. e. A hill-o:^. 

With a stick. 

The people's cultivation. 

From the threshing floor. 

In the house. 

On account of the cart. 

On account of the rain. 

An earthen vessel. 

To the tank 

Its calf. 

To the bufiFalo. 

(Used in accosting an elderly woman.) 

From beside me. 

Belonging to river water (referring 
to some animate object). 

In front of him. 



In the world. 
Bar sadomrea' bojha. The load of two horses. 
Disomren raj. The king of the country. 

Borlomrea thengatel The staflf of (or belonging to) the 

spear. 
Tambu se: khon. From the direction of the tent. 

Horko samau khon. From before the people. 
Gharoiljko lagif joma*. Food for the household. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



11 



Chap. V. PREPOSITIONS, or bathee POSTPOSITIONS. 



bin, 


'without, \ ^ 
without, J 


sorre, 


near. 


begor, 


samanre, 


before. 


re, 


in, on, at, while. 


tdyomre, 


behind. 


te, 


to, by. 


cetanre, 


above. 


then, 


at, to, by. 


latarre, 


beneath. 


khon. 


from. 


talare, 


in the midst. 


se:, 


towards. 


paromre, 


on the other side. 


sen, 


towards. 


dhabi:. 


up to. 


lagi^, 


for. 


dhari:, 


up to, as far as. 


hotete, 


by means of. 


habi:, 


until. 


iate, 


on account of. 


leka, 


like. 


tulu:, 


with. 


rean, 


of, concerning. 


saOte, 


with. 


mudre, 


in the midst, among. 


meutft. 


for, in order that. 


motore. 


among. 


* Bin and begor are generally placed before the words they govern. 




Chapter VI. 


CONJUNCTIONS. 


ar, 


and. 


enh5, 


nevertheless. 


ado, 


then. 


enrehO, 


yet. 


arh6, 


again. 


khajuk, 


so that. 


khan, 


if. 


se. 


or. 


baqkhan, or else. 


reh6, 


although. 


endekhan, then. 


bickom, 


on the other hand. 


onate. 


therefore. 


ente, 


for. 


inateron, on that account. 


iate, 


therefore. 


menkhan, but. 












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12 



SAKTALI GRAMMAR. 







Chapter VII. 


NUMERALS. 








1. 


Cardinals. 


' 


1 


mi£, 




one. 




11 


gehnii, 


eleven. 


2 


bar, barea, 


two. 




12 


gelbar, 


twelve. 


3 


pe, pea, 




three. 




13 


gelpe, 


thirteen. 


4 


pon, ponea 


foar. 




14 


gel pon, 


fourteen. 


5 


m6re, 




five. 




15 


gel mOre, 


fifteen. 


6 


turui, 




six. 




16 


gel turui. 


sixteen. 


7 


eyae, 




seven. 




17 


gel eyae, 


seventeen 


8 


iral, 




eight. 




18 


gel iral, 


eighteen. 


9 


are, 




nine. 




19 


gel are, 


nineteen. 





gel, 




ten. 




20 


mii isi, 


twenty. 



The Santals count by twenties, so if we wish to express 
65, we say, " pe isi m5r6, " i. e. three twenties and five. 

They have adopted the Hindi words " sai " hundred ; 
" hajar," a thousand. 

2. Ordinals. 

The Santals have no Ordinals of their own. They use 
the Hindi " pahil," first ; " dosar," second ; " tesar," third ; 
then they stop. The Cardinal numbers are generally used 
after this ; for instance when speaking of the sixth Com- 
mandment, they say, "Turui hukum rorme, " Repeat the 
sixth Commandment. It could mean. Repeat six com- 
mandments, but in the above connection it is never mis- 
understood. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 13 

Another way is to add the auflSx " a' " to the Cardinal, 
as, " pon ", four ; " pona ", fourth. The " a' " is a sign of the 
Genitive neuter, and means " of" " Pona' puthi", literally 
means, " the book of four persons, or things*' and not there- 
fore the fourth in order. 



Chapter VIH. ABSTRACT NOUNS. 

Abstract nouns are not very plentiful in Santali. They 
all bear traces of modern origin. It is not* customary for 
Santals to spef^k of things in the abstract. They are a 
matter of fact people, and prefer to look on things and 
matters in the concrete. 

However as the language advances, they are obliged to 
manufacture some abstract terms to supply their growing 
needs. Santali is a particularly flexible language, smd thus 
capable of many transformations. By adding a termina- 
tion to a verb, e. g. " ror ", to speak ; rortet', speech. " 01, " 
to write; " ola', " writing. It is, however, specially from 
adjectives that abstract nouns are generally formed. Thus 
from " hende ", black ; we have " hendetef ", or " hendea', " 
blackness. "Sebel," sweet; "SebeltetV* its sweetness. 
Pond, white ; " pondte^, " its whiteness ; " ponda', " white- 
ness , lit: the thing of white. 

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14 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Chapter IX. A Table of verbal Terminations. 

Though it is still premature to introduce verbs into the 
exercises, owing to their not having yet been explained ; 
yet as no sentence is complete without a verb, we are 
constantly obliged to bring them in when giving exam- 
ples for illustration. 

It is therefore thought well to mention a few of the 
verbal terminations of constant occurence, at this stage. 



Termination. 


Meaninjir. 


Example. 


Meaning. 


a 


is 


marana 


is greater. 


gia 


is indeed 


marangia 


is indeed greater. 


kana 


IS 


maran kana 


is great. 


o'kana 


is becoming 


marano'kana 


is becoming great. 


o'a 


will become 


marano'a 


will become great. 


tahSkana 


was 


maran tahSkana 


was great. 


ena 


became 


maranena 


became great. 


akadiei 


has become 


maranakana 


has become great. 


lena 


did become 


maranlena 


did become great. 




Chapter 


X. ADJECTI 


VES. 



Adjectives are subject to very fe^ changes, nor is their 
form altered in comparison. 

maran hor, a big man. 

hudid dare, a small tree. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



15 



konka herel, 
kuaki aimai, 
lelha kora, 
lilhi kuri, 
kala hor, 
kali maijiu, 
gutiga gidra, 
gudgi gidra, 
ledha dadgra, 
lidhi gai, 



a foolish man. 
a foolish woQian. 
a stupid boy. 
a stupid girl, 
a deaf man. 
a deaf woman, 
a deaf boy. 
a deaf girl, 
a lame ox. 
a lame cow. 



Chap. XL On the COMPARISON of ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives are compared by adding " khon " for the 
Comparative, and " sanamkhon, " for the Superlative. 



Hudid puthi. 
Ona khon hudid puthi. 
Saaam khon hudid puthi. 
Noko doko usulgia. 
Onko khonko usula. 



A small book. 

A smaller book. 

The smallest book of all. 

These are tall. 

They are taller than those. 

Jotoko khon Pandue usulgia. Pandu is taller than all of 

them. 



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16 



SANTALI GRAMMAE. 



Sometimes comparison is expressed and intensified by 
adding the words " arhS, " more ; " utar, " much ; " 60', " 
little ; " arte^, " more ; 



hudid 



Nui do sanam khone 
utargia. 

Noado ida' ora' kana, enhS 
maran do' ora'id banaoa. 



This person is the smallest 
of all. 



Nui do arhSe motawa. 

Noadhiri onakhonarte£ 
moDJa. 

Nui sadom do onko khon ar 
h6e usula. 



Lenga ti, 
Adi jut, 
Usui gai, 
Sebel ul, 
Hende dangra, 
Mota dare, 
Laser tengo:, 
Eaban din, 
Dal hor, 
GuQga gidra, 
KarS, sadom, 
Karl raerom, 
Haram hor, 



This is my house, neverthe- 
less I will build a little 
larger house. 
He is still fatter. 

This stone is far more beauti- 
ful than that. 

They are tall, but this horse 
is taller than they are. 

Exercise 2. 

left hand. 

very fine. 

a tall cow. 

a sweet mangoe. 

a black ox. 

a thick tree. 

a sharp axe. 

cold season. 

a struck person. 

a dumb child. 

a blind horse. (Masculine). 

a blind goat. (Feminine). 

an old man. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



17 



When two nouns are in apposition, the first ca^a be 
translated as an adjective, as ; 

Hopon puthi, a small book, lit: a child book. 

Bid hopon, a young snake, lit : child of a 

snake. 

Jharna da' spring water. 

Apat ti, a fatherly hand. 

Taka ora', house where rupees are kept. 

Gai gora, a cow-house. 

The particle " an " denoting "with" gives the idea of pos- 
session ; it is frequently added to adjectives and nouns. 
When two vowels come together " w " is inserted for the 
sake of euphony. 

Exercise 3. 



Dare kora, 
Darean hor, 

Herelan maijiu, 

Takawan kuri, 
Mota jangawan hor, 
Upan hor, 
Kati: culun bulun, 
Adi oko: hor, 
Adi bari: kora 
Adi ba,ri: horko, 



an able boy. 

a strong man, or a man posses- 
sed of strength. 

a married woman, or a woman 

possessing a husband, 
a rich girl. 

a fat-legged person. 

a hairy man. 

a very little salt. 

very many people. 

ft very wicked boy. 

a large crowd. 

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18 



sant; '-grammar. 



Maran l5o' ora', 
Behaj utar cgr6, 
Aema utar hor, 
Guru kbon bujhantar, 
Noa ora* sanarakhon usula. 

Amkhone dareana. 

Onkokhon dhere badaia. 

Joto seta khon nui doe besa. 

Sanam boehako khone hu- 
din utara, 

Ona caolekhon arh5 bhagea 
aguime. 

Noa tuku: khon arh5 ma- 
rada' kiiiiime. 



a rather large house. 

a tremendous lot of birds. 

a multitude of people. 

cleverer than his teacher. 

this is the highest of all the 
houses. 

he is stronger than you. 

he knows more than they. 

this is the best dog of all. 

this is the youngest of all the 
brothers. 

that rice is good, but bring 
better than that. 

buy a larger earthen vessel 
even than that oue. 



Chapter XIa ADVERBS. 

Many adjectives may be used adverbially, as ; 
Adi jute oleda. He writes very nicely. 

Adverbs may be formed by adding " te " to other words, as ; 
JeleiSte. Lengthways. 

Chotokte. At once. 

Participles can also be used adverbially, as : 

Nindhankate. Humbly, literally " being humble.' 

Some adverbs are formed by doubling the adjective, as;^ 

Monj moi]je rora. He speaks pleasantly. 

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SANTALI G ' 'AmaR. 19 

List of ADVERI § m Common use. 
1. Adverbs of Time. 



Nit, Nito', 


now. 




Satom, 


two years hence. 


Naha', 


presently. 




Dinkalom, 


last year. 


TehiJi, 


to-day. 




Holkalom, 


two years ago. 


Hola, 


yesterday. 




Mahkalom 


, three years ago. 


Mahnder, 


day before 


yester 


- Tis? 


when? 




day. 




Tinre? 


at what time of the 


Onmahnder, 


three days 


ago. 




day? 


Gapa, 


to-morrow. 




Unre, 


then. 


Mean, 


day after to-mor 


- Un khon, 


from that time. 




row. 




Enhilo* 


on that day. 


Endrae, 


three days 


hence. 


Enbetar, 


at that time. 


Pher endrae, 


four days hence. 


Enan, 


a little while ago. 


Seta\ 


morning. 




Dhinan, 


after mid-day. 


Pahapoho, 


at early dawn. 


Jahfttis, 


sometimes. 


Anga, 


dawni 




Sedaire, 


of old. 


Tikin, 


noon. 




Jaohilo', 


every day. 


Tarasitf, 


afternoon. 




Jaijug, 


always. 


Ayu^, 


evening. 




Tin habi:, 


till when ? (of one 


Ninda, 


night. 






day.) 


Tala tfinda, 


mid-night. 




Tis habi:, 


how long ? 


Nes, 


this year. 




Naha', 


now. 


Kalom, 


next year. 




Hapen, 


afterwards (not to- 
day.) 

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20 



SANTALI GKAMMAR. 





2. Op Place. 




Nonde, 


here. 


Sanamthen, 


every where. 


Onde, 


there. 


Note, 


this way. 


Hante, 


in that place. 


Onte note, 


hither and thither. 


Okare 1 


where ? 


Okate? 


whither ? 


J ah are, 


where. 


Maranre, 


before. 


Latare, 


below. 


Mucaire, 


finally. 


Samanre, 


in front of. 


Cotre, 


above. 


Lahare, 


before. 


Onparom, 


on that side. 


Berhaite, 


around. 


Noa sa, 


this side. 


Cetanre, 


upon. 


Hana sa. 


that side. 




3. Op Manner, Quantity, 


&c. 


Nonka, 


thus, like this. 


Satmente, 


at once. 


Onka, 


thus, like that. 


Harephare, 


confusedly. 


Nenka, 


like this. 


Adi, 


many. 


Enka, 


like that. 


Adi utar. 


very many. 


Nina^ 


so many. 


Udi, 


a little. 


Cefleka? 


how ? 


Kati: talan. 


a little 


Noa leka, 


like this. 


Nase nase. 


a very little. 


Oka leka ? 


how? 


Eskar, 


alone. 


Jahalekate, 


any how. 


Eken, 


only. 


Ina leka, 


in that manner. 


Mi^tegi, 


together. 


Nuna', 


so much. 


Begar begar. 


separately. 


Ina'gi, 


sufficient. 


Algate, 


easily. 


Baibaite, 


gently. 


Enkate, 


gratis. 


Hakopako, 


quickly. 


Behaj, 


very much. 






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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

4, Op Affirmation: and Negation. 



21 



H^, Hai, Ha, 


Yes. 


HS con, 


Yes indeed. 


Sarigi, 


Truly. 


Kajegi, 


True what ycu say. 


Ban, bana. 


No. 


Alo, 


Don't (entreating). 


Oho, 


Not (assuring). 



Chapter XII. INTERJECTIONS. 



The following are the most common : 



Hai hai ! 


alas! 


Ma, 


please. 


Haire ! 


woe is me ! 


Cha:! 


(to a fowl.) 


Ayoge ! 


dear ! 


Durre ! 


wonderful ! 


t:Jhi chi ! 


for shame ! 


Hape! 


hush! 


Chaire ! 


begone;! 


Jare jare I 


alas! 


Hari: ! 


(to a dog.) 


Men! 


take care ! 


Del 


give. 


Besbes ! 


well, well ! 


Ne, 


take. 


Bhala ! 


Well, we shall see ! 


No'6i I 


beheld ! 


Henda ! 


listen ! 



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22 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Chapter XIII. PRONOUNS. 

The Personal Pronouns are simple and undeclinable. 

First Person. 
Sing : Id I. 

Dual : Alan, we two, I and thou ; this form includes 

the person spoken to. 

Alid, we two, I and he; this excludes the person 
addressed. 

Plural : Abo, we, I and you ; includes the person spoken to- 

Ale, we, I and they ; excluding the person or 
persons addressed. 

Second Person. 

Sing : Am,, thou. 

Dual Aben, you, two. 

Plural Ape, you. 

Third Person, 
Sing : Uni, he. 

Dual Nukin, those tw6. 

Plural Onko, they. 

In composition the abbreviated forms of the pronouns 

are used. A table is appended later on. 

It is the idiom of Santali to reduplicate the pronoun in 

the construction of sentences, as, Sadome darkeda, The 

horse, he ran. 

Onkoko senena. They, they went. In such cases a 

shortened form of the pronoun is employed. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 23 

There are certain definite changes in the vowels for the 
sake of the euphony. 

The root of the pronoun is " on " as seen in " onko," they ; 
" ona," that ; but the vowel of the root is always modified by 
the final vowel. 

When the vowel in following the syllable is " i ", then 
that in the preceding one is always " u " or " i " as uni, 
unkin, tikina, liliiia, where we might have expected one, 
onkin, tekina, leliiia. 

N. B. " uni " in reduplication takes " e " unie not " unii," 
as, Unie emadida, He, he gave it to me. 

It is necessary to mention that occasionally for the sake 
of euphony, syllables are contracted and occasionally al- 
together omitte<l, as ; 

laiakotape for laiakotapepe. emkema for emkemea 
koilekhan „ koileekhan. emkina „ emkeiila. 

koiliiikhan „ koileiiikhan. emkea „ emkeea. 

The Pronoun " Self." 

The word " self" may be expressed in Santaliin several 
ways. The general rule is to insert an emphatic particle. 

1 Idgid senlena. I myself went. 

2 Id tegid kamia. I will do it myself. 

3 Id do idgid cala'a. I myself will go. 

4 Idtefgid adjomkeda* I myself heard it. 

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24 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

The word " a: " is used in the sense of " self" in the third 
person singular, as ; 

Uni a: gie cala'a. He himself will go. 

*' akin," in the third person dual, as ; 

Unkin do akinkin cala'a. Those two themselves will go. 

" ako," in the third person plural, as ; 

Raiot do akogiko cala'a. The raiots themselves will go. 

Chapter XIV. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Possessive Pronouns are formed by adding " ren " to the 
personal pronoun, when the noun following it is Animate ; 
and "rea', a' ", and "rean," when the noun is Inanimate. 
Unkin ren sadom, their horse, (dual) The horse belonging 
to the two persons. Onkoa' ora', Their house (plural) 

" My son " can be expressed in the following ways, 

Inren hopon. Son of me. 

Id hopon. lit : I son ; genitive particle omitted* 

Hoponid. Son L 

Hopontin. Son my. 

The pronoun joined to a noun of relationship is gene- 
rally affixed to the noun, as ; 

Apa, father. 

Apud, my father. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



25 



Apum, 


thy father. 


Apat, 


his father. 


Enga, 


mother. 


Engad, 


my mother. 


Engam, 


thy mother. 


Engat, 


his mother. 


Boko, 


brother. 


Bokoii, 


my brother. 


Bokom, 


thy brother. 


Bokot, 


his brother. 


Engattako, 


their mother. 


Hopontam, 


thy son. 


Gidratae, 


his child. 


Ajittet, 


his, her or their elder sister. 


Ora' takin. 


the house of the two. 


Thengatako, 


their staff. 


Puthitalan, 


book of us two. 



The Possessive pronoun is constantly inserted into the 
middle of the verb, as ; 

Adjomtakorae, hear their words. 

Daltakinme, strike the things belonging to 

the two. 
Aguitiiime, bring my (e. g. book) 

Akridentaea, his is sold. 

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26 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Chapter XV. SHORTENED FORMS OF PRONOUNS. 
Singular. 



Nominative, 

1 Pens. Ill, /. 

2 „ em, thou. 

3 „ e, he. 



Genitive. Dative. Accusative. 

titi, my. all, /or ine. ill, me. 

tarn, thy. am,ybr thee, me, thee. 

tae, his. ae, ybr Aim. e, him. 

Dual. 



1 Pers. liii, Ian, talid, talan, alili, alan, liil, Ian, 



we two. our two. 

ben, taben, 

you two. your two. 

kin, takin, 

those two. their two. 



for us two. us two. 

aben, ben, 

for you two. you two. 

akin, kin, 

for those two. those two. 



Plural. 



1 Pers. le, bo, 


tale, tabo, 


ale, abo. 


le, bo. 


bon. 


tabon. 


abon, 


bon. 


we. ' 


ours. 


for us. 


us. 


'2 DP 


tape, 


ape, 


pe, 


you. 


yours. 


for you. 


you. 


3 „ ko. 


tako, 


ako, 


ko, 


they. 


their*8. 


for tJiem. 


tliey. 






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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



27 



Chapter XVI. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Demonstrative Pronouns are the same as the Personal 

pronouns of the third person, or perhaps it would be more 

correct to say that San tali possesses no Personal Pronoun 

in the third person, but borrows a Demonstrative pronoun 

to supply the want, as ; 

Uni, he lit : that one. 

Unkin, the two, those two. 

Onko, they, those. 

A list of the Demonstrative pronouns in Common use is 

here given. 

Animate. 

Dual 
Nukin, 

Unkin, 

Inkin, 

Nikin, 

Hinkin, 

Hunkin, 



Singular, 
this (near). 

that (further). 

that (furthest). 

this (near one). 
Hini, that (furthest). 
Huni, that (furthest). 



Nui, 
Uni, 
Ini, 
Ni, 



Plural. 
Noko, these. 

Onko, those. 

Inko, those. 

Neko, these, 

Henko, those 

Honko, those 



Noa, this. (near). 
Ona, that (furthest). 
Hana, that (furthest). 
Nia, this 

Ina, that (furthest). 
Hina, that (furthest). 



these two. 

those two. 

those two. 

these two. 

those two. 

those two. 

Inanimate. 
Noakin, these two. Noako, those. 

Onakin, those two. Onako, those. 
Hanakin, those two. Honako, those 
Niakin, these two. Niako, those. 
Inkin, those two. Inako, those. 
Hinakin, those two. Hinako, those- 

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28 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Exercise 4. 



Ini dole haraiea 
.Inkin dolid akriilkina. 
Onko doko tahengia. 
Niagi idime. 
Hina do dohokam. 
Nigile emamkana. 
Huni do tahSocoaepe. 
Hani deleme. 
Huni daraekana. 
Hona dole emaikoa. 
Ina'gi mena*a. 
Henda Baba. 
Hanko okoecon darakokan ? 

Hona kitabgi aguime. 
Ihako khetgim sio*kana ? 

Huni sirn bare sabeme. 
Neko gidra adiko besa. 
Hina kicii: bare hataome. 
Enkan guti doko dhera. 

No'5i rua iate bale cala'a. 



We will bring him up. 
We two will sell those two. 
Those will remain. 
Take this away. 

Put that down and leave it. 

We are giving you this one. 

Let that one remain. 

Look at that one. 

That one is coming. 

We gave that one to them. 

It is sufficient. 

Listen, Sir. 

Who are those that are com- 
ing.? 

Bring that furthest book. 

Are you ploughing those same 
fields ? 

Catch that fowl. 

These are very good children. 

Choose that cloth. 

There are very many such 
servants. 

See, we cannot go on account 
of fever. 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 29 

Ne'e le saprao'kana. Just now we are getting ready. 

Uni tulu: ona ora're tahen- Remain with him in that 

me. house. 

Onte dhari: ben cala'a ? Will you two go as far as that? 

Chapter XVIL INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Animate. 

Singular. Dual, Plural. 

Okoe ? who ? Okoekin ? which two Okoeko ? who ? 

Cele ? what kind ? Celekin ? what kind ? Celeko ? what kind? 

Inanimate. 

Oka ? which ? Okakin ? which ? Okako ? which ? 

Ce^ ? what kind ? Cefkin ? what kind ? Cet'ko? what kind? 

The destinction between these words is very great, and 
far more defined than in the corresponding English words. 
With " okoe " the name will generally be given in answer, 
as ; 

Okoeye senlena ? Who did go ? " Bhairo went," would be 
the answer. Whereas if the question were, Celeye senlena ? 
Gidrae senlena. It was not a man, nor a woman, but a child 
that went. In other words the idea contained in " cele " 
is what kind of person or animate object are you enquiring 
about? 

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30 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Celepe delkedea ? What (animate) did you see ? Some 
person or animal was known to have been seen ; was it a 
tiger or a hare ? a man or a woman ? Celeye he:lena ? Was 
it a Santal or a Hindu ? A boy or girl ? 

" Oka " and " cef " are only used of inanimate things. 
They bear the same relation to each other as okoe and cele, 
though it is not so easily distinguished, as ; 

Oka hortem he:ena ? Which way did you come ? 
Cei hortem he:ena ? What kind of way was it by 

which you came ? 

Sometimes the word "lekan" is attached to "oka" and 
"cef ' giving it the force of "what like" ? or "what kind ? " 
Okalekan ora' ? What kind of house ? " 

Ceflekan ora' ? both mean practically the same, though 
there is probably a marked distinction in the idea of the 
Santal speaker. 

Exercise 5. 

Okata dhirim liamkana ? Which stone do you require ? 

Cet*ko rora ? What will they say ? 

C^i ! ondeko senlena ! What ! Did they go there 1 

Okoe then gidraem bagi- With whom did you leave the 

adea ? child ? 

Cele, Dekoko he:akana ? What ! Have the Hindus come ? 

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SANTAU GRAMMAR. 



31 



Bhala ! am dom sendare- 

ko'a? 
Henda Baba, okatem seno'a? 
Celeko herakana ? 
Deko, se Munda, se Hor ? 
Okoeye senlena ? 
Dadam se bokom. ? 
Uni do celeye gorena ? 
Cele ce£ lagit'em he:akana ? 
Celi, onde h5 ko ora'lena ? 

Okoeta' in aguiea ? 
Okoekin joma ? 
Okoeta' pe lielekana ? 
Celi lekana em jiamkana ? 

Okalekana'em sirikeda ? 



Well, are you able to go ? 

Sir, where will you go ? 

Who have come ? 

Hindus, Paharias, or Santals ? 

Who went ? 

Your elder or younger brother? 

Who was it that died ? 

What have you come for ? 

What ! did they build a house 

there also ? 
Which one shall I bring ? 
Which two will eat ? 
Who is it you are looking at ? 
What kind of thing are you 

wanting ? 
What kind have you sought 

for? 



Chapter XVIII RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The Interrogatives " okoe " and " oka " are commonly 
used in the sense of Relatives. 1 1 is probable that in the 
early days of Santali there were no relative pronouns in 
use. Santals when relating their own traditions or when 

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82 SANTALI GEAMMAR. 

stating facts, do not use them. However, through coming 
in contact with other languages, they have adopted foreign 
words and idioms ; and we find it necessary, as the lan- 
guage develops, to use relative pronouns, especially when 
translating the New Testament^ which is so full of invol- 
ved and dependent sentences. 

It should be borne in mind that the Santals when they 
use the words " okoe " and *' oka " generally add the corres- 
ponding Demonstrative, e. g. ; 

Okoe horko senlena, onko agukom. Bring the men 

who went. 

It is however more in accordance with the genius of the 
Santali language to use the verbal Participles, and thus 
obviate the use of the Relative Pronoun, as ; 

Senlen hor agukom. Bring the went-men, or the men 

who went. 

The pronouns " one " that which ; " no'6i," this ; and 
" hane" that, and several others combine both demonstrative 
and relative meanings. 

They are only used of inanimate things. 

The final " a " of the verb is nearly always omitted when 
" one " is used, e. g. ; 

Oneii metafme. That which I told you. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 33 

Chapter XIX. DATIVE PRONOUNS. 

As has been already explained an animate Dative 
pronoun can be inserted into verbs, so in some cases the 
same can be done with proper names, e. g. ; 
With a verb. Emaekanako, they are giving to him. 
With a noun. Johon duturaaei:,a person whose name is 
Johon, lit: the name to him is John. 
Bhairoae, the name to him is Bhairo. 

Chapter XX. ON THE TERMINATION "a'" 

1. When " a' " is added to a noun or pronoun it means 
'of "as; 

Pandua' ora'. The house of Pandu. 

Ida' tanga. The axe of me, i. e., my axe. 

2. When " a' " is added to an adjective it becomes an 
abstract noun, as, sari, t^^^ue ; saria', truth ; 

3. When " a' " is added to a verb it takes the place of an 
objective pronoun in the neuter, and may be translated in 
most cases by the word "it". 

Words so formed generally have the idea of " in addi- 
tion to," or "in part" as, jomme, eat. joma'me, eat a part 
of it. 

3 

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34 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



PC 
r W 



g 

CO 

5z; 



.3 
o 



d-43 

§•1 
5 



I I 

1^ 1^ 



Sf^ 



II 



1^ 
§1 

31 



%i I 



13 

•5 ^ 



4 






O o 



Ah 

ll 11 



4 



««« 



4Sa 



g 

Ctf O 



rt.5 

a" 

c« « 



i 

bo 

3-a 




CO u 



'(3 © 




•I 

i. 

-I 



bo 
-I 

«.2 
1^ 



3'^ 1 



08 O 



oa © 



y Google 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Exercise 6. 



35 



Horo binda dalme. 



Horo binda dala'me. 

Eteta' phandaime. 

Arjan phandawa'me. 

Noa dare magme. 

Noa dare ma'a'me. 

Guru do saria' rea'e rorkeda. 

Noa ari sena'me. 

Noa dhiri alom doboVa. 

Paudua' rea'ko galmaraokeda. 

Onagi asola' do. 
Banaoena' do okah5 ban 

bari:a. 
Noa dan dohoa'me. 
Jah§,lekale isinakawafmea, 

jomka'me. 
Da'a'khan dago'a. 



Beat out the rice from the 
sheaf. 

Beat out some of the rice. 

Kick the fence. 

Kick the goad. 

Cut this tree down. 

Partly cut down this tree. 

The teacher spoke concerning 
the truth. 

Follow this custom. 

Do not bow dowii to this stone. 

They spoke about Paudu's 
affairs. 

That is the principal thing. 

Not one of the created thinc;s 
is bad. 

Add some more to this heap. 

Never mind how we have cook- 
ed for you, eat it up. 

If it rains on it, it will become 
liquid. 



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36 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Exercise •/? 

Genitive and Accusative Pronouns 
inserted into the Verb. 



Rorbarakedetidae. 
Senat'takoae. 
Be:kedetamae. 
Dhilaua^kotakoae. 

Horo rohoientama ? 
Ghasko irke^taea. 
Aloko sapkotina. 

Alom hataotakoa. 
Katha do aiijomo'tabena. 

Ceda'pe siket'takina. 

Hoientalana. 
Banu'kotabena. 
Ora' tedgokatakome. 
Khunti tengoitakome. 
Dobo'ae tali n me. 
Gitijetalanme. 
Senlentalanam ? 
Emakotalinme. 

Eraogo'taboben. 
Ajaurientama. 



He rebuked him that is mine 

He went for them. 

He took from him who is thine. 

He neglected those that are 

theirs. 
Is your rice planted ? 

They cut his grass. 

Let them not catch those that 

are mine. 
Do not take theirs. 

The matter of you two will be 

heard. 
Why did you plough the land 

of those two ? 

Our case is finished. 

You two have none. 

Raise up their house for them. 

Make their post to stand. 

Bow down to him who is ours. 

Make him lie down who is ours. 

Did you go for us two ? 

Give to them who belong to us 
two. 

You two kindly give for us. 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 37 

Chapter XXII. THE VERB. 

The difficulties of Santali all seem to be connected with 
the Verb. This stands out in bold relief, perhaps as the 
remains of a language that once was more copious. The 
wonderful intricacy of the verbal system is a marvel to the 
student, and considering the mental calibre of the Santals 
of the present day, one is all the more surprised to find 
such a complex, and yet perfectly regular, verbal system. 
Can it be they are the pillars of some noble edifice that has 
become more or less a ruin I the remains of decayed 
language ! 

Dr. Phillips, in writing about the Santal language, says, 
"It will readily be seen that, by a kind of dovetailing and 
splicing of the pronouns with the verb, its forms may be 
multiplied to an almost unlimited extent, affording great 
exactness, force, beauty, and copiousness of expression. 
Few languages, probably, afford greater facilities for rich- 
ness and beauty of expression, with so few intricacies, as 
the Santali.'' 

Tenses. 

There are ten principal tenses in Santali ; but three of 
these are formed by the addition of the auxiliary verb 
"taken" to remain. By means of particles it would be 
possible to increase this number to any extent. If these 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



38 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



ten tenses be grasped, the others will be very easily formed 
by certain regular additions. 

1 Present Indefinite. 

2 Present Definite. 

3 Imperfect. 

4 Imperfect Definite. 

5 Future. 



6 Perfect. 

7 Past Perfect. 

8 Recent Past. 

9 Anterior Past. 
10 Pluperfect. 



The distinction between these tenses and their forms will 
be explained later on. 

Chapter XXIII. PARADIGM OF TENSE 
TERMINATIONS. 



Indicative Mood 



Active, 

1 Pres. Indef. eda 

2 „ Def. e^kana 

3 Imp. Indef. e^tahgkana 

4 „ Def. eikan. tabSkana 

5 Future a 

6 Perfect akada 

7 Past Perfect aka^ tab^kana 

8 Recent Past keda 

9 Ant. Past leda 

10 Pluperfect let' tah&kana 



Middle. 



Passive. 



wanting 
o'kana 
wanting 
o'kan tahSkana 

o'a 

akana 

akan tah&kana 

ena 
lena 
len tahSkana 



wanting 
oco'kana 
wanting 

oco*kan tahS- 

kana 
oco'a 
Gcoakana 

ocoakan tah5- 

kana 
, ocoiena 

ccolena 
ocolen tah§- 
kana 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



39 




y Google 



40 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



TS -3 "i 

d .5 a a J 

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^ 


nalan 
wo shal 
naben 
two sha 
nakin 
two shi 






KS 




o -*^ © - © >> 


1 













, 


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mained. 
Bmained. 
emained. 


H 






b 


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1 


s 


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nalan 
have r 
naben 
► have 
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have 


hH 


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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 41 




rH C^ 



1 


1 

G 


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a 


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naii 

lined 

nam 

rema 

nae 

main 




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cs s- ce -n c8 ^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



42 SANTALI GRAMMAR 



^ -I § I I 



1^ O fl ® a; o 

^ "^ JS ^ ^ 
3! t> «8 ^? .* ;^ 



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^ S 




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C fl 






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CC .S 




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vr> -2 




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d d •§ '^ S § 2 § 2 -M '-^ 



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d 
?^ S d t! 



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a d o 

"2 ® a .2 § *" 

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&5 © g © "^ S jLJ .:s -g 

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Hm hh hW 

i-l d CO 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 43 

Chapter XXV. VOICES. 

There are three Voices in Santali ; Active, Middle 
and Passive. 

1. The Active Voice. 

The Active voice is by far the most extensively used 
of the three, and presents no special difficulties. 

We have arranged a Tabular Paradigm to shew the several 
forms of the Active voice, and hope that this plan will give 
the student a kind of birdseye view of the whole verbal 
system, and thus enable him to grasp the leading features 
at a glance. If so the Author will be amply repaid any 
labour and thought be may have bestowed upon this 
work. 

2. Middle Voice. 

The " Middle'' denotes a condition partly Active, partly 
Passive, in which the agent acts on himself, so that while 
he is the agent, he is also the sastainer or the sufferer 
of the action. It is sometimes called Neuter or Reflexive. 
The Middle Voice is constantly employed where we should 
in English use the Active. 

Ale do ro'hoi le ehopakana, We ourselves have begun 
to plant. N. B. not eho^akada, as we should naturally say. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



44 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Horo dom rohoi cabakeda ? Have yoii finished planting ? 

(Active) 
Unie menkeda, Iii dod rohoi He replied, I myself have finish- 

cabaiena. ed planting. (Middle) 

Id do akrin cabaiena, I have sold out. (Mid.) 

Bogeteko dalogo a, They will beat themselves very 

hard. 



3. Passive Voice. 

Santals as a rule express what they say in the simplest 
and most direct manner, and therefore the Active voice 
in principally used by them. But there are times when 
they speak in such a way that we are compelled to admit 
the existence of a Passive Voice. 

The causative particle " oco' " is constantly added to 
Verbs to express " causation". As the Santals have a 
diflSculty in distinguishing the passive from the Middle, 
the particle " oco " is frequently employed by them to 
form the Passive. The primary meaning ofcausatioa 
can always be traced. Onkoko sapoco'a. They will do 
something which will cause themselves to be caught. la 
other words, " They will be caught." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 45 

The particle " oco" with a Dative conveys the meaning 
of "allow." 

Senocokom, Cause them, to go. 

Senocoakome, Allow them to go. 

Neloconme, Cause me to see i<t. 

Nelocoanme, Allow me to see it. 

It is true that the forms for the Middle and Passive 
Voices are the same, yet the meaning conveyed in them 
is clearly very different. These will be better understood 
after studying the Exercises under the different divisions 
of the Paradigm given later on. 



There 


are five Moods in Santali- 




1 
2 
3 

4 
5 


Indicative. 

Subjunctive. 

Potential. 

Infinitive. 

Imperative, 



y Google 



46 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 






PL, 



o 



to 

a 












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OS ^ 



o 

O 

<1 Eh 

P3 O 

< < 
P-i 






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a 

08 



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iS {3 ^ rt c6 e6 ^ 

U: 0} (» CO OQ CO U2 



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08 



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ce ^ 

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cJ d 

03 CO 






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■4^9 

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P-I . ^ 

fl ^- 1) 






Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



47 






.** ^ 5 .^ 

2 i § 2 i-^ i g 



s iaSll^'iirs'S 



1^ 



s 

06 



G 

ce M 
a ^ 

? la; +^ 



O 
^"1 



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1F^ 1^ ■" »^- -^ CIS C -^ ^^ ""^ 



o 

o 
> 

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= S 'fl -s 

«fl -tS .S C3 
c © 



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s *2 g - ^ 
s © 3 § fl 5 

pt< pL| 0^ P5 <t5 Ph 



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©^ ^ ©* ©^ ©* ©* ©" 

jc js jc ji J2 js jz 



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a 

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be 5 bb fi - ^ 
.S ^ -? 5 -^ ce 



cC 

c 
ce 

M 
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a 



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^ g ^ 



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r^ ^=3 J^ jbd fl "^ ^ 



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pLi hS p=<Pl,Pmp:5-<Ph 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



48 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 









o 
£ 



a 
o 

>> >^ 



o 



;S 











vo 


t> 


d 


^ 


X 


^ 


5 


<1> 


g 


fS c 


^ 


oS 


. <£ J4 . 


rS 


bbrf^ 


SPr*>.« SP 


Ph 


C 


So 2 




•^ 50 


'13 BO 00 'iS 


w 




wan 
sabo 
sabo 
wan 



CO 

C 
a; 
H 

Ph 



a 

a 



Ph 



o 






be 
£ 



GQ »> t» • 
3 ^ ^ CO 
M (C (D 0> 

. © © CO > 

fl t- fe -fl a 



a 



2^ 9 ^ to 



i^Jiil 






o 

c 
.S -cJ 

^ O 



© q) a> 0) a> c; 

^ ^ js ^ j3 j: 

HHHHH H 

"I 1"^ 

2 § .i 

S2§g 



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C 
23 .rJ 'd 58 ^ * •* _. 



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5 

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d (i> a 



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tiP4 






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fe 



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r-idCO-^iOOt^OOOiO 



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^ *a ^ -a 

rrt ca pS «d 

£ «a ^3®§^5j? 

Ph »5 p«^p^P^p^<<lP^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 49 



to 

s 

o la 
CO -ts 



50 . ^ a 

• ^^ -^ CD ^ ^ • br : fen ^ ^ "'^ " 






t£ 


bO 


W) 


PP. 


P 


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p 


03 04 


c8 


ed 


cC 


O a 


O 


o 


o 


^ 


2 


0? 




05 W 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ U 



K KWffiKWMW hho h hhhhhhh 
.2 O ^ 









L4 



■2 *" ~ * $" 

« i"-s s *" *r f i i" -a i" *' *=- f 

i-H cq CO Tt< »o o t^ to 05 o f-i <M cc -«*< iO o t^ X a» o 

4 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



50 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



J2 
to 






s 1^ 






o 

08 

:^ 
VD 

^ 00 ^ CO OB ^ 



bo 

g 

to 






II 



be s 
P OS 



Q 

09 CO 



J -^ J '^ 



+3 4^43-2 3 

^ ^ JO »« S 

bL bo bo ^ G- 

=3 P 3 g c^ 

08 c6 21 ?? 08 









q) ® 






>> >^ >^ >^ >> ^ >:> 

Q) ^ qi) 0) C) g) ® 

•8 -§ ^ 

a oi 

S S fl 

IS V 110 ^ 

^ o ^ \<o 

K ^ «S d o -^ 

gJ:^ .C8 -^ is .2 ^ iJ 
SOQOOOOO 

rtOOOOOOO 

' ^ '^''^''^"^'^ * '§' 
S^noaoQOQCQQsn 



•a -^ *3 

^ -^ ^ 

^ ^ «-s t: » o 

•^ S "^ :3 ® ci ® 

5 pRp4a;pci 



15 PM 



PM. 



0^ 






d'i=* 



1^' 



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''^"'S 

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-« g -^ » 0) c3 <V 



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r-i©ac<5^»0<Dfc*QD0iO 



y Google 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



51 



Chapter XXVII. ON THE FORCE OF THE TENSES. 

The force ofijhe tenses is admirably described in Skrep- 
sud's elaborate Santal Grammar ; as this book is only 
intended to be a Primer, or rather a Simple Introduction 
to the study of Santali, it will be readily understood that 
many important matters are omitted. For the sake of 
helping the beginner, we will append a few sentences 
under each of the different tenses. 

1. Present Indei^inite. 

Active. Middle, Passive, 

Termination eda wanting, wanting. 

Example daleda, strikes 

The Present Indefinite Tense is used to express general 
ideas. It is employed in describing acts commenced, and 
not yet finished. 

Horko meneda. People say. 

Deku do bin bako jomet'koa. Hindus do not eat snakes. 

N. B. There is no Present Indefinite in the Middle and 
Passive Voices. 

2. Present Definite. 

Active, Middle, Passive, 

Term. e£kana o*kana oco'kana. 

Ex. dalet'kana, " dalo'kana, daloco'kana. 

is striking, is striking himself, is being struck. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



62 SANTALI GRAMMAR 

This tense is used to express what is now happening. 
It ditfers from the Present Indefinite, as may be easily 
seen by comparing the sentences, Horko meneda. People 
say, not particularly now, but are accustomed to say, 
Horko menefkana. The people are now saying. 

There are phrases constantly met with in which it is 
very difficult to mark the distinction between " eda " and 
*' kana," which is another form of the Present Definite. 

Isore kulauabonkana, ought really to mean, God is now 
providing for us ; whereas this phrase is usually understood 
in a general sense, God provides for us always, and not 
necessarily at this present time only. 

Some verbs are more or less irregular, and therefore 

will not always be known by the termination, " o*kana" in 

the Middle and " oco'kana " in the Passive. 

Seno'kanae (Middle) He is going 

Senoco'kanae (Passive) He is being caused to go. 

Cala'kanae (Middle) He is going 

Calaooco'kanae (Passive) He is being caused to go. 

This latter root seems to have been borrowed fi:om Hindi, 

and is now most commonly used. 

Sometimes the termination " kana " in the Middle Voice 
conveys a meaning which in English we should certainly 
express by a Past tense, as ; 
Tehid ninda ondele gitirkana We slept there last night. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 53 

Taljhari bale tio' dareada, We could not reach Taljhari, 
Pandu thenle giti:kana. so we slept at Pandu's 

house. 

3. Imperfect Indefinite. 

Active, Middle, Passive, 

Term, ei tahgkana, wanting, wanting. 

Ex. dale^ tah^kana, 

was striking. 

This tense expresses something done in the past as a 

habit or custom. 

Noa burule sendraie^ tah§- We used to hunt in this raoun- 
kana. ' tain. 

Sedairejondrale dalel! tah^- Formerly we used to beat out 

kana, menkhan nito' dole the Indian corn, but now 

ure^kana. we separate the grains by 

rubbing. 

4. Imperfect Definite. 

Active, Middle, Passive, 

Term.* elikan tahskana. o*kan tahSkana. oco'kan tahS- 

kana. 

Ex. dalet'kan tahSkana, dalo'kan tah6- daloco'kan ta- 

kana, hgkana, 

was actually strik- was striking my- was being 

ing. self. struck. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



54 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

The Imperfect DeBnite is used to express an act that 
had been going on in the past, but was interrupted by 
something else taking place. 

Act. Kombroiefkan tahg- They were in the act of steal- 
kanako, lagaket'koad. ing, but I drove them away. 

Mid, Taljharireil parhao'kan I was reading in Taljhari, but 
tah^kana, ApuiSe go: owing to my father's death, 
lente iskulid bagi- I had to leave School, 
keda. 

Pass. Dakuko sapoco'kan The dacoits were being 
tahekana, menkhan caught, but some how 

ko darkeda. they ran away. 

5. Future. 

Active, Middle. Passive. 

Term, a o*a oco'a 

Ex. dala, dalo'a, daloco'a, 

will strike. will strike himself, will be struck. 

The Future expresses futurity, as, 

Gapan cala'a. I will go to-morrow. 

It is also used in narration where we should employ the 
Present Tense, but from the standpoint of the speaker 
the action is always in the future. 

Hor ceiko mena ? What do people say ? Perhaps the 
Present tense meaning of this phrase is to be accounted 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



65 



for in this manner, If you ask people, they will say so and 
80. Thus, though a Future, it has the foice of a Present 
tense of custom or habit* 

6* Perfect. 
Active. Middle, Passive, 

Term, akada akana ocoakana 

Ex. dalakada, dalakana, dalocoakana, 

has struck, has struck hitnself, has been struck. 
The Perfect Tense expresses the abiding effect of a 
terminated action, 

Bholae senakana, Bhola has gone, and is not yet 

back. 
In many places where we should use the Present tense, 

Santals use the Perfect, e, g. 

Ora'reye durupakana. He is sitting in his house. 

Inid patyauakana. 1 believe, i. e. 1 have believed, 

and am continuing to believe. Using the Present, laid 
patyau'kana, gives the idea, I am on the way to believe, or 
am about to believe. 



Term 
Ex. 



Active. 

, aka^tahSkana 
dalaka^ tah€- 

kana, 
had struck. 



Past Perfect. 

Middle, 

akan tahSkana 
dalakan tahS- 

kana, 
had struck them- 
selves, 



Passive, 

ocoakan tahSkana. 
dalocoakan tah§- 

kana, 
had been struck. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



56 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



The Past Perfect is formed by adding " tahgkana " to 
the Perfect. It bears the same relation to the Perfect, as 
the Imperfect Indefinite does to the Imperfect Definite. 
It denotes that an action took place in the past, and was 
succeeded by another'act. e. g. Herodis do Johone hajot- 
akade tah^kana. Herod had imprisoned John and kept 
him there. 



Active, 

Term, keda 
Ex. dalkeda, 
struck, 



8. Recent Past. 

Middle, 

ena 
dalena, 
struck himself, 



Passive, 

ocoiena 
dalocoiena, 
was struck. 



The Recent Past is a pure Aorist. It denotes a past 
action, but speaks of no definite time. Senenako, they 
went, Dalkedeako, They struck him. Ona khuntireko 
olkeda. They wrote on the post. 

This tense is often used where in English we should 
expect the Perfect. Calaoenako, They have gone. Jom- 
akadam ? Hei^ jomkeda. Have you eaten ? Yes, I ate. 

It may be well to remark here that Santals generally 
answer in a difierent tense from that used in the question, 
this may lead the learner to imagine that he himself 
has made a mistake. 



y Google 



gANTALI GRAMMAR. 57 

Dadame senakana ? H6, senenae. Has your elder brother 
gone ? Ans, Yes, he went. 

9. Anterior Past. 

Active. Middle, Passive. 

Term, leda lena ocolena 

Ex. dalieda, dallena, dalocolena, 

did strike, did strike himself, was struck. 

The Anterior Past expresses an action that is past, but 
has been revoked or neutralized. 

Qutie senlena. The servant went, and has 

returned. 
Tolledeako. They bound him, but he is 

loose again. 

Mr. Skrefsrud in his Santali Grammar has given a very 
apt illustration from the Creed. Go:lenae, He did die, 
but is alive again. 

10. Pluperfect. 

Active, Middle. Passive, 

Term, lei! tahSkana, len tahSkana, ocolen tahSkana, 
Ex. dallet' tahSkana. dalleri tahSkana. dalocolen tahSkana. 

It is extremely diflBcult to express the exact meaning 
of some of these tenses in English. We have no special 

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58 SANTALI GBAMMAfi. 

terms to denote them. This Pluperfect conveys the im- 
pression that some action took place in the past, but was 
altered by something else occurring. It is closely allied to 
the Anterior Past. Probably there is an under-lying idea 
of continuance in the use of the Pluf)erfect tense in Santali. 

Remarks on Paradigm of Verbs. 

In order to familiarize the student trith the various 
meanings which may be given to the sattie forms of Verbs, 
a number of examples have been selected^ and arranged 
under their respective columns. It will be seen that some 
forms are wanting, these are denoted by the blank spaces. 

The Future tense has been chosen as being the simplest. 
We have in some cases translated it as a Present by insert- 
ing the word " do " in order to give the sense of " habit" 
e. g. sasapa, I do catch. 

There are also some examples under the columns of the 
Passive where no Pronoun is given. These are cases where 
the verb is generally used to describe Inanimate things. 

Columns 



A. 


B. 


a 




are 


Active. 


D. 


E. 


F. 


G. 


99 


Middle. 


H. 


I. 


J. 




f> 


Passive. 

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)gl^ 



: VERBS. 



58a 



PASSIVE. 



Genera] 

I sapkoa,- , 
J IshaUoa » a. 



I shaU sa-^ 



down- 



H. 
neral Form. 



ogo' 

with Passive mean- 
ing;; 



bU be caught. 



calaoto* 

IshaUdus 

make 



I ^l^^^** Rewritten. 



cao'a, 

ill be saved. 



I ^^ Jir belifteddown 



stand. 



stand'* 



4obo'koa, 
down. 



ftilc^ukoa, 
I BhaU tes^ 



enakoa,, > a, 
T will ^^^ 1 be given. 
away. "^ 



made to 



ku a, 
be tested. 



J. 

oco*^ 
Purely Passive 
sense. 



sabogo'a, 
I shall be caught. 



senogo a, 
will be carried out. 



ologo'a, 
will be written. 



<Jobogo'a, 
shall be bowed 
down. 



emogo'a 
will be giyen. 



sapoco a, 
I shall be caught. 



calaooco'a, 
I shall be made to 
go. 

senoco'a, 
will be caused to 
go. 

oloco'a, 
shall be written. 



balicaooco'a, 
I shall be saved. 



afgooco'a, 
I shaU be lifted 
down. 

teiigooco'a, 
shall be made to 
stand. 

(Jobo'oco'a. 
shall be bowed 
down. 

^ikauoco'a, 
shall be tested. 



emoco a, 
shall be g^i'v^en. 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 69 

ACTIVE VOICE. 
A. General Form. 
Exercise 8. 

Ape lagi^ sereiiedaii, I sing for you. 

Lumamle horho badcaokef- We watched over the silk- 
koa, worms. 

Burukhon gaile argoie^ko We were driving the cows 

kan tahgkana, down the hill. 

Pargana ora' ko tengoieli- They were raising up the Par- 

kan tahSkana, ganite's house. 

Patta id olapea, I will make out a pottah for 

you. 

Sahiba' puthikin bancao- They two have saved the Sa- 

akada, hib's book. 

Merom lagif takako emaka^ They had given money for the 

tahgkana, goat. ' 

Onkoa' horope dalkeda, You threshed their rice. 

Baplare do mahajon takale We managed the wedding by 

calaola'a, borrowing from the mahajan. 

Sohraire ko enerlefi tahdkana, They did dance at the Sohrai 

feast. 

Da' khon id badcaokedea, I saved him from the water. 

Taka dod emleda, I did give the Rupees. 

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60 3ANTALI GRAMMAR. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

B. Form Denoting Habit. 

Exercise 9. 

Dare lenjergite nudurkana, They slip down owing to the 

tree being so smooth. 

Skul korako sisikana, auriko The school boys are learning 
hewa'a, to plough, they are not yet 

efficient. 

Manjhi adie dadala, The manjhi is in the habit of 

thrashing people. 

Pahil do ko sasapkan tahS- Formerly they used to catch, 
kana, 

]^utum o'oliii metadea, bae I asked him to enter my name, 
o'ola, but he will not write. 

Idgid ca'laokana, I am the one who directs the 

work. 

l^inda do adi sesena, Night is the special time for 

going. 

Adi dhao Pargana thenid I have been many times to 
senlena, bae babadcaoa, the Parganite, he won't help. 

Nonde do adi darangia, ban This place is so steep, that it 
a'argoa, cannot be descended. 

Tihin gapa do basup bako At this season they do not 
a'3,rgokana, take down straw from the 

rick. 
Dakad e'emkan tahSkana, I was distributing the cooked 

rice. 
Uni kuri do adie do'bo'a, That girl is constantly bowing. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 61 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

C. Causative Form. 

Exercise 10. 

Madjhi do bhidie sapocoie£- The manjhi causes the people 
koa, to lay hold of the sheep. 

Katiko senocoieda, They are shooting with the 

marbles. 

Deku do khet kami adiko The Hindus are very active 
calaoocoiefkana, in managing their agricul- 

tural pursuits. 

Uni do dangra bae senocoie^- He could not make the two 
kin tahekana, oxen go. 

Alid do senerliii argoocoie£- We two were making the men 
kokan tahSkana, lift down the rafters. 

Hatiate seno' horle tengooco- We cause the people who go 
koa, to the market to stand. 

Ora' do le tengoocokeda, We have raised up the house. 

Kicri: lagi^ taka bae emoco- He has not caused some our 
akai tah^kana, else to give the money foi 

the cloth. 

Uni gidra do dhirie dobo'oco- The child made the stone to 
keda, bow down. 

Onkoa' katha do alele oloco- We caused their words to be 
la'a, written down. 

Noa ran do khub bhagea, This is a splendid medicine, 
mi^ chot dod aikauocolel;- once I caused some one to 
tahekana, take it, and benefit was recei- 

ved. 

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62 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

MIDDLE VOICE. 

D. General Form. 

Exercise 11. 

Darere bae sabo'kana, He is not holding on to the 

tree. 

Eua'i: bae sendareat'te sen The sick one could not get 

senkateko teugo'kan tahS- along, so they kept on stop- 

kana, pi^g* 

Taljbarirefi payhao'a, I shall learn to read in Tal- 

jhari. 

Burukhon id SLrgoakana, I have come down the hill. 

Uni hor do bae calaoakan That person had not then 
tah6kana, gone. 

Arategim emena, You yourself gave. 

Bidaureii soroso'a mente iiS- I thought in my own mind 

tegiii aikaulena, that I should pass. 

Ora' teko senlen tah^kana, They had gone to their home. 

Onkoko usado'kana. They are becoming vexed. 

Idtegin badcaoena, I saved myself. 

Pe paisa in emlena, I myself gave three pice. 

Popole ehopena, We began to hoe, on our own 

account. 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR, 

MIDDLE VOICK 

E. Fqrm, ''ogd " with Reflexive meaning. 

Exercise 12. 



63 



Kicri: gin emogo'kana, 
Onko dare thenko dobogo'- 

kan tah^kana, 
Nuro' khaule sabogo'a, 



Amem aeno'khan id h5ii 

senogo'a, 
Hape, thiro'me, ^urile %\* 

kauo'a, 
Thengated dalogo'kana, 

Duk iate rorogo'kanad, 

Noa it^ do bad gerogo'kan 

tah^kana, 
Badgie adjom lagi^ lena, 

enh5idlaiadea, 
Lajao damenale, 
Alolan fcaphariau'ma, 

N. B. " ogo' *' is only used in 



I myself am giving a cloth. 

They were bowing themselves 
down to the tree. 

If we slip, we will lay of some- 
thing to prevent ourselves 
from falling. 

If you go, I myself also will go 

Wait a little, we have not yet 

mad^ up our minds. 
I am striking myself with a 

stick. 
I upbraid myself on account 

of trouble. 
This seed was unable to fix 

itself in the soil. 
He himself would not hear 

nevertheless I told him. 
We were put to shame. 
Do not let us quarrel. 

the Present and Future tenses. 

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64 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



MIDDLE VOICE. 
K Form with "^'on" in Present and " an " in Past 

TENSES. 

Exercise 13. 

Thengale sapjonkana, We take up our staff. 

Ora'telesenjonkau tahgkana, We were going home. 

I will taste the rice for myself. 
I have brought the book for 

myself. 
We had bought the rice for 

ourselves. 
I saved some pice for myself 
I had descended from the roof. 



Dakad jom aikaujona, 
Puthid aguakawana, 

Horole kiridakawan tahS- 

kana, 
Paesa id badcaoana, 
Sarim khon id argoan tah6- 

kana, 
Khulasako jowana, 
Kami doro' jonkanae, 
Gadireko de: aikaujona^ 



Setodreko umulakawana, 



They ate with comfort. 

He is steadfastly woirking 

They will mount the gari and 
see what it is like. 

They have sheltered them- 
selves during the heat. 
Buru khonle del suk jonkana We can see it splendidly from 

the hill. ^ 

Horle banaoana, We have made a road for 

ourselves. 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 65 

MIDDLE VOICE. 

G, Form with ''ocd'' used in a Reflexive sense. 

Exercise 14. 

Ape do apum thenpe calao- You are obeying your fathers* 

oco'kana, instruction. 

Abentegi ben sapoco'kan ta- You were causing yourselves 

h^kana, to be caught. 

Onkoko sabedkhan, amthen- If they seize me, I will cause 
id badcao oco'a, myself to be saved by look- 

ing to you. 
Ojha then bale aikau oco- We have not traced the cause 

akana, by consulting the doctor. 

Taka bako em ocoakan tahg- They had not caused the mo- 
kana, ney to be given to them^ 

elves. 
Tin sangid cope senko'a, ba- You might have got on a long 
ri: keftepe tengo ocoiena, way, by your own wicked- 
ness you have stopped 
yourselves 
Adim ruhedte dalocolenam, You have caused yourself to 

be beaten by your cross 
words. 
Hakim do horko thene dobo' The magistrate did cause the 
ocolen tahSkana, people to bow down to him. 

5 

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66 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

H. General Form. 

Exercise 15. 

Kombro do ko sabo'a, The thieves will be canght. 

Ondeko senlenteko sabo'- They are being caught be- 
kana, cause they went there. 

Mihu iate rengerrele ba6- We were being saved from 
cao'kan tah^kana, starvation by our herds. 

Pera do bad thikko aikau'a. Relations do not appear to be 

friendly. 



Onko do bako olakana, 

Uni do bae dalakan tah^- 

kana, 
Ora' khunti teagoiena, 

Puthi lagi£ taka emlena, 
Hathie saplen tahgkana, 

Takako emketteii bancao- 

ena, 
Onkoko iSamo'kana, 
Noa barge lagi£ khajna do 

ernlena. 
Barpe tola id darakeda, hoy I went to several villages, but 

banko damlena, 

Ona horo do adi thoragi 
rohoio'kana, 



They have not been entered. 
He has not been beaten. 

The post of the bouse was 

set up. 
Money was given for the book. 

The elephant had been caught. 

I was saved by their giving 

money. 
They are being found. 
Rent was paid for this garden. 



Uni doe sapakana, 
laid delo'kanji, 
Id do bad kombro'a, 
Mil; jaegare ona taka do ban 
e mien a, 



no one was to be found. 

Very little of that rice is being 

planted. 
He has been caught. 
I am being seen. 
I shall not be robbed. 
The money was not all given 



BANTALJ GRAMMAR. 67 

PASSIVE VOICE. 
J. Form " ogo' " With Passive Mjianing. 
Exercise 16. 

Am hotete kombroko sabogo' The thieves are being caught 
kana, by meang of you. 

Dareko magogo'kaix tahS- The trees were being cut down* 
kana, 

Eken daka do ban udogo'a, Not only cooked rice, but other 

things also are swallowed. 

Jatium do dhirite tenogo'a, The thorns will be pressed 

down by stones. 

Thengateye dalogo'kana, He is being beaten with a 

staff. 

Saheb then ilutum ologo'- The names are being written 
kana, by the Saheb. 

Pangrate ganum knogo'kan Tbe oil was beiog expressed 
tahgkana, by means of the ox. 

Baberte ene: tulogo'a, This can only be hupg iip with 

string. 

Khetre adi dago'a, There will be naueh w^ter in 

the field. 

Hulre hofko mago'kan tahg- During the rebellion people 
kana, were being cut down. 

Noa ot lagil; mit' taka emo- For this laud one rupee is 
go'kana, being given. 

Hor do noaiateko rapago'- People are being burnt for 
kana, this purpose. 

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68 SANTALI QRAMMAB. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

J. Form " oco " in a purely Passive sense. 

Exercise 17. 

Laokareko calao oco'kana, They are being conveyed in a 

boat. 

Dabaooco'kaa hore bicarlef- He judged the case of those 
takoa, who were being oppressed. 

Dakako emocoakana, Food has been given to them. 

Dhorotn do bako aikauoco- They have not been account- 
akana, ed righteous. 

Noko horko argooco'a, Theise people shall be lifted 

down. 

Ale thenko rinocoiena, They became debtors to us. 

Kombroko dal ocolena, The thieves were beaten. 

Kulai seta thene sapocolen The hare was laid hold of by 
tah^kana, the dog. 

Gidra do apat thenko baiicao- The children will be saved by 
oco'a, their father. 

Dolan khonko argoocoiena, They were taken down from 

the building. 

Onkoko usa^ocoakana, They have been and are 

vexed. 

Go: ocoienae, He was killed. 

Onko do ko jomoco'gia, They will be devoured (by 

tigers). 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR, 69 

Chapter XXIX. RECIPROCAL VERBS. 

Many verbs are reduplicated with the letter " p " insert- 
ed at the commencement of the second syllable. This 
gives the force of mutual or reciprocal action. 

dal, to strike, dadal, striking, dapal, striking one an- 
other. 

jom, to eat. jojoin, eating. jopom, to devour one an- 
other. 

a&m, to find. liaiiam, seeking, liapam, to find each other, 

hence, to meet. 

lai, to tell, lalai, telling, lapai, to tell each other. 

em, to give. e'em, giving. epem, to givetoeach other. 

ror, to speak, roror, speaking, ropor, to speak to each 

other, i. e., to 
quarrel. 

tfel, to see. iCeiiel, seeing. depel, to see each other. 

Chapter XXX. IRREGULAR or DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

Mena' "to be" or "exist." 
Sing. 



1 


Pers. 


menana 


I am. 


2 


» 


menama 


thou art. 


3 


W 


menaea 


he is 






mena'a 


it is 

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Dgl^ 



70 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Dual 



Plural 



1 


Pers. 


menalana 


we two are, (inclusive) 






mena'lina 


we two are, (exclusive) 


2 


» 


mena'bena 


you two are. 


3 


>t 


niena'kina 


those two are. 


1 


jy 


mena'boa 


we are, (inclusive) 






mena'lea 


we are, (exclusive) 


2 


>y 


mena'pea 


you are. 


3 


a 


mena'koa 


they are. 



N. B. The roh ( ' ) does not occur in the Singular in cases 
where the pronoun is inserted. Hena' is also used and 
sometimes the rok is omitted. 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plural 





Banu' 


"not to be." 


1 


banugina 


I am not. 


2 


banu'mea 


you are not. 


3 


banugia 


he is not. 




banu'anan 


it is not. 


1 


banu'lana 


we two are not, (inclusive) 




banu'lida 


we two are nob, (exclusive) 


2 


banu'bena 


j^ou two are not. 


3 


banu'kina 


those two are not. 


1 


banu'boa 


we are not, (inclusive) 




banu'lea 


we are not, (exclusive) 


2 


banu'pea 


you are not. 


3 


banu'koa 


they are not. 

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SANTAU GRAMMALI. 



71 



Exercise 18* 



Okare menaea ? 
Where is he ? 
Mena'kotiDa, 
Mena'tida, 
Mena'tapea, 
Menaetakoa, 

Id do akrid cabaiena, Unie 
menkeda, Id do mena'gia, 

Id dod akrid cabaiena, cha- 
dao'rea' upai do banu'- 
anan, 



Uni do banugia. 
He is not here. 
I have some (e. g. animals), 
I have some (e, g. rupees). 
You have some (e. g. rice). 
They have a (e. g. father.) 
All my books are sold, He an- 
swered, I have some remain* 
ing. 
I am sold up, i. e., I am helples a 
I have no way of escape. 



Chapter XXXI. IMPERSONAL VERBS. 
There are a large number of Impersonal verbs in SantalL 



renge: 
range: edida, 

hasoet'koa, 
tetauet'mea, 

darakokana, 



To be hungry. 

I am hungry, lit. It hungers 

me. 
It pains them. 
It thirsts you, i. e., you are 

thirsty. 
They are coming. 



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72 



SANTALI GRAMMARI. 



The Past Tenses 
rule for verbs. 

1. Present Indef. 

2. Pres. Def. 

3. Imperf. Indef. 

4. Imperf. Def. 

5. Future 

6. Pert 

7. Past Perf. 

8. Recent Past. 

9. Anterior Past. 
10. Pluperf. 



are formed according to the general 



hasoedida, 
hasoedidkana, 
hasoedin tah^kaua 

hasoedidkan tah^- 
kana, 

hasoida, 

hasoakadida, 

hasoakadid tah§- 

kana, 
hasokedida, 

hasoledida, 

hasoledid tah^- 
kana^ 



I am pained. 

I am now in pain. 

I used to be 

pained. 
I was in pain. 

I shall be pained. 

I have been pain- 
ed. 
I was in pain. 

It pained me. 
It did pain me. 
It did pain me. 



Chapter XXXII. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

The Subjunctive Mood is usually formed by adding 
" khan " to the verb with the special tense termination, 
omitting however the final " a " of the verb. 



Atnem seno'a, 
Amem seno'khan, 
Amem seno'kankhan, 
Amem senlenkhan, 



You will go. 

If you will go. 

If you are now going ? 

If you did go ? 



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. SANTALI GRAMMAR. 73 

This latter can also be translated by *'If you should go" 
The context alone can decide which of the two is meant. 

The Subjunctive is sometimes expressed without add- 
ing "khan," as ; 

Nian damkana,nondealoko I wish very much that they 
tahen, should not remain here. 

Goroailme ama' bukum Help me that I may obey 
lekad seno', your order. 

It is quite possible that these ought be classed as Accusa- 
tive with Infinitive, 

The Conjunctions "jemon" and "mente" "so that", or "in 
order that" are often employed to express the Subjunctive. 

Cala'jokhe:laiadpe,jemon Tell me when you go, so that 
id h5d seno', I too may go. 

Boge'a mente ranid bat- In order that he might be cured 
laoadea, I mentioned a remedy* 

Occasionally the verb may be beard without the final 
termination, and without the Conjunction "jemon" 

Amem seno', That you may go. 



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74 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Chapter XXXIII. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

Owing to the numerous ways in which the Protasis and 
Apodosis are used it is very puzzling at first to the learnei- ; 
but when once the rules are grasped, everything becomes 
quite clear. There is a remarkable regularity in Santali, 
though at fii-st it all appears confused. 

It may be well to point out that the particle " le " is 
always transitive and therefore is a sign of the Active 
Voice. On the other hand " fe'n." is always intransitive, 
and points to the verb being either Middle or Passive. 



Act. Horem go:lekokhan, 
Mid. Amem goilenkhan, 
Pass. Apattefe go: ocolenkhan, 

Gh^sko jaoralekhan, 



Horko jaoralenkhan, 
Itiid gurlekhan, 
loin gurleukhan, 



If you kill the men. 

If, or when you die. 

If, or when his father shall 
have been killed. 

If, or when they have 
gathered the grass to- 
gether. 

If, or when the people 
are assembled. 

If I make to fall. i. e. cut 
down a tree. 

If I fall down. 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 75 

Exercise 19. 
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES, TRANSITIVE. 

Ida' kurtaem lielkhan, id If you see my coat, you will see 

h5m deleiSa, me. 

Ida* kurtaem delefkhan, id If you see my coat, (at any 

h5m delidkana, time) you see me. 

Ida' kurtaem delefkankhan If you are now seeing ray coat, 

id h6m delidkana, you are now seeing me. 

Ida' kurtaem dellekhan, id If you should see my coat, yoa 

h^m deJkina, would also see me. 

Ida' kurtaem dellefkhan, id If you saw my coat, then you 

h5m nelled.ida, saw me also. 

Ida' kurtaem dellekhan, id If you had seen my coat, then 

h5m delkida, you would also have seen me. 

Exercise 20. 
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES, INTRANSITIVE. 

Jo bele'khanid emama, If the fruit ripens, I will give 

you some. 
Jobele'kankhan,id emama, If the fruit is ripening, I will 

give you some. 

Jo beleakankhan, id ema- If the fruit has ripened, I will 
ma, give you some. 

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76 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Jo beleenkhan, iiS emama, If the fruit ripened, I will give 

you some. 
Jo belelenkhan, ill emama, If the fruit should ripen, I will 

give you some. 
Jo belelenkhan, ill emkema. If the fruit had ripened, I would 

have given you some. 
Jo belea' tahenkhan, id If the fruit were ripe, I would 

emkema, give you some. 

Nit jo bele'khan honan, id If the fruit were now ripe, I 

emkema, would give you some. 

Jo bele'khan honan, id em- If the fruit had been ripe at 
kema, that time, I would have 

given you some. 

Chapter XXXIV. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

with a Dative Pronoun. 

From the following examples it will be seen that the 
Dative Pronoun in composition can be used in several 
senses. The meaning of ''for theTYiy with theniy on theTn, 
and to them" are the most common. 

Exercise 21. 

Ulem de: akokhan paesa id If you climb the mangoe tree 
emama, for them, I will give you 

pice. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



77 



Kadaem de: akokhan, id 

dalmea, 
Pangraem kamiakokhan, 

joma' emakom, 
Eatem kamiakokhan, kurai- 

em dama, 
Sahanem go'akokhan, adi- 

em be»kea, 
Takaem go'akokhanko he: 

ko'a, 
Amem bagiakokhan, nonde 

ohoko tah^lena, 
Raherem dalakokhan, ku- 

raiko emama, 
Ma^ein sapakokhan ko pa- 

ra'darea'a, 

Khetem siakokban ko ro- 
hoidarea'a, 

Caro dangraem siakokban 
gbas irakome, 

Amem bongaakokban, id 
edreama, 



If you mount tbe bufialoes, 

I will beat you. 
If you plough with the oxen 

then give them food. 
If you cut the wood for them 

you will be rewarded. 
If you carry the sticks for them, 

you will do a good action. 
If you promise them money, 

they would come. 
If you leave them, they will 

not be able to stay here. 
If you beat out their dal, they 

will pay you. 
If yoti hold the bamboo for 

them, they will be able to 

split it. 

If you plough their field for 

them, they will be able to 
plant. 

If you plough with hired bul- 
locks, then cut grass to 
feed them with. 

If you make an offering to 

the bongas, I shall be 
angry with you. 



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78 



3ANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Chap. XXXV. On the Particle ''dare' " in Compositiok. 

Dare meaning "able" when compounded with another 
verb, takes the Dative of the object, even where we mighfc 
expect the accusative case to be employed. It is conjugated 
regularly, and is placed next to the root of the verb. 

Exercise 22. 

Bad kirid dareakoa, I cannot purchase them, 

Bako eendarea'a, 

Bad dalda^eakoa, 

Raher do bad daldA^eakoa, 



Sadom do bad eapdareae- 
kana, 

Bad sendarea'a, 

Ama' hukum do bad sen- 
darea'a. 



They are not able to go. 

I cannot thrash them. 

I cannot thresh the raJier for 
them. 

I cannot catch the horse. 



I am not able to go. 

I am not able to carry out your 
order. 

Godet rea'em kami darekea? Could you do the work of a 

messenger ? 

Yes, I could do it. 

I cannot do the work of a head- 
man. 

The villagers will be able to 

carry the things. 

They cannot give him the ru- 
pees. 

Bhidi do bako emdareadea, They could not give him the . 

sheep. 

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H6 id kamikea, \ 

Madjhi rea' ohod katnida- 
relea, 

Atorenkoko ididarea'a, 
Taka bako emdareaea, 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 79 

Chap. XXXVI. On the PARTICLES, arte:, ene:, nahf, ban. 

These are so much alike that it is impossible to make 

any real distinction. It is probable that nahi has been 

borrowed from Hindi, and that it has the same meaning 

as the word " ban ". 

Senlen ane: em nama. If you go, then yoirwill obtain. 

D.iUeko ene:ko botoro'a. If you thrash them, then they 

will fear. 

Sodorle nahiko goroama, If you mention the fact, then 

they will help. 

Sodorle banko goroama, If you mention the fact, then 

they will help. 

In all the sentences there is a condition expressed and 
a consequence as the result. 

Chafieb XXXVII. POTENTIAL MOOD. 

The potential Mood is formed by inserting the particles 
" ke " and " ko' " between the root and the final " a " of the 
verb. 

*'ke" shews that the verb is transitive and therefore it 
is used in the Active Voice. 

Sodo' em donparomkea ? Could you jump over the brook? 
Nonkan monj ora'ko ba- Could they build such a fine 
naokea ? house as this ? 

ko' shews that the verb is used intransitively. It is 
therefore a sign that the verb is either Middle or Passive. 

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80 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Middle. Cei, noa dhiri a:tegi What ! could this stone 

donko'a ? jump of itself. 

Passive. Olko' puthi dhartire The world could not con- 

oho sahoplena ? tain the books that 

could be written. 

CHAPTiife XXXVm. THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 

The Infinitive is either the root, or its reduplicated form. 

1. Horo irko senakana. 

2. Horo i'irko senakana. 

3. Horo iro'ko senakana. 

These three forms are in constant use, The first instance 
is an exception to the general rule, which is that the 
Infinitive Mood requires the verb to be reduplicated in 
the Active Voice. ^ 

There are four ways in which it would be possible to 
translate the sentence " It is good to save men " though 
we cannot say that Sanfcals use all four forms with this 
particular word " badcao " to save. It is rather given as 
an example of the different rules for forming the Infinitive. 

1. Hor bancao do besgia. 

2. Hor badcaoko do besgia. 

3. Hor babadcao besgia. 

4. Hor ba'dcao do besgia. 



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I 



SA^KTALI GARAMMAR. 81 

A. Examples of the simple root of the verb in the Active 
Voice. 

Hero irko senakana, They have gone to reap the rice. 

Janhe dalko dukana, Thev went to beat out the 

janhe, 

Daka jomko calaoakana, They have gone to eat their 

food. 

B. Examples in the Middle Voice. 

Horo iro'lio seuakana. They themselves have gone to 

reap the rice. 

Bancao'ko senakana, They have gone to save them- 

selves. 

Onde cala'do ban besa. It is not well to go there. 

C. Examples with the root reduplicated. This is 
undoubtedly the correct way of forming the Infinitive. 
Janhe dadalin senlena. I went to beat the janhe. 
Daka jojomko senakana, TKey have gone to eat rice. 

D. Examples with the rok inserted, without any al- 
teration or addition to the letters. 

Ro'hoiko senakana. They have gone to plant. 

Hi'riko herakana. They have come to visit. 

' Kurumu'tu do lekgia. It is right to strive. 

Qirjare galma'rao do ban It is not right to talk in church, 
besa. 

Jel jo'roko ehopkeda. They began to portion out the 

meat. 



6 



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bZ SANTALI GRAMMAR 

E. .Examples of the Infinitive with an Accusative'pro- 

noun. ...,.:■ 

Dalko do ban thika. It is not right to beat.thenr, 

Bancaoko do daya rea' It is a work of mercy to s^,ye 

kana. • them. 

Namkine senakana. He has gone to find the two. 

F. Examples of the Infinitive with a Dative Pronoun. 
Laiakoe menwana. He wished to tell them. 
Goroaeye dukana. He went to assist them. 
Dobo'akoe eet'adea. He taught him to bow down 

to them. 
Koiae do adi besa. It is good to pray for him. 

N. B. The Infinitive is never reduplicated when an 
Accusative or Dative Pronoun is expressed. 

Chapter XXXIX. IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

The Imperative is formed by adding the Pronominal 
affix to the root, as, 

dalme, strike thou. 

dalben, strike you two. 

dalpe, strike ye. 

me connected with mit', one 

beu „ „ " bar, two 

pe - „ „ pe, three or more. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 83 

The negative is expressed by adding " alo " not, with 
the pronoun aflSxed to it, followed by the verb in the 
Future tense. 

Idin seno'a. I will go 

Alom seno*a. Do not go, orThou shalt not go. 

Alope seno'a. Do not you go. 

When a command is given concerning others, and not 
actually addressed to the persons concerned, it is usual to 
add " TYia " to the root. This properly is a Subjunctive 
used as an Imperative and answers to " Let " in English. 

Inin seno'ma. May I go, or, Let rae go. 

Onkoko jomma, May they eat, or. Let them eat. 

The Negative particle " alo " not, added to the above, 
as, 

Alon seno'ma. Let me not go. 

Alokin seno'ma, Let those two not go. 

Aloko seno'ma, Let them not go. 

Bari: hor leka alod guju'ma, Let me not die the death of 

the wicked. 

The Future tense together with a word denoting invita- 
tion, is constantly used as an Imperative. 

Delabon joma, Come, let us eat. 

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84 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Chap. XL. PARADIGM of the IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
"jom " to eat. 



Sing. 1st 


Peisan 


Jommati, 


Let me eat. 


2nd 


)> 


Jomme, 


Eat thou. 


3rd 


ft 


Jommae, 


Let him eat. 


Dual 1st 


>i 


Jommalan, 


Let us two eat, (inclus ive) 






Jom nialid, 


Let us two eat, (exclusive) 


2nd 


ft 


Jomben, 


Eat (you two). 


3rd 


ft 


Jommakin, 


Let those two eat; 


Plural 1st 


it 


Jammabo, 


Let us eat (inclusive). 






Jommale, 


Let us eat (exclusive). 


2nd 


>» 


Jompe, 


Eat ye. 


3rd 


ft 


Joramako, 


Let them eat. 



Chaffer XLI. CHANGES in ROOTS of VERBS. 

The student will find it helpful to notice the changes 
in the roots of different verbs in the Imperative. The 
Past tense of each verb is also given. 



Laime, 


Dig thou. 


Lakedako, 


They dug. 


Laime, 


Tell. 


Laikedako, 


They told. 




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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



85 



Middle. 



Active. 



La'me, * 

La'enako, 

Lagme, 

La'kedako, 

Lago^me, 

Lia'enako, 

^in-lajm^, 



Cut yourself, or Be cut. 
They were cut. 
Chip thou. 
They chipped. , 
Cut yourself.. 
They cut themselves. 
Twi»t three eordfil.- 



Sim la:kedako, They twisted the three cords. 



'^Thisis sometimes used as a term of abuse to oxen 
when plowing. May the ploughshare strike yoqr hoofa^! :. 



Active. [Gedme, 

Gefikedako, 



Middle. 



Active. 



Middle. 



Gedo'me, j 
Gefenako, 

Arubme, 
Arupkedako, 

Arubo'me, 
Arupenako, 



Cut it. ' 

. ' They cut it . 

Cut yourself • — 

They cut themselves, . 

Wash it. 
They washed it. 

Wash yourselves. 

They washed themselves. 

Clothe it. . , 

Clothe yourselflThese are two forms 
Clothe yourself, J meaning the same. 



Denga'me, 
Denganme, 

The Irriperative will lie found to have elactly the sSme 
ift6jth1fi^ as tfe* ver1)al1fdrm from which it is taken. 

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86 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



Chapter XLII. Table Shewing the various forms of 
THE FUTURE TENSE and their Special meanings. 



1 1 will not return, hide, 
or steal the rupee, 

2 I will not return the 

goat, 

3 I will not return. 

4 I will not return (it 

i? not my habit to 
do so.) 

*6 I myself will not re- 
turn. 



Taka baii ru- 


okoia 


ara 




Merom baiS 


okoiea 


ruarea 




111 baii ruara 




16 bad ru'ara 


o'koa 


Id bad ruaro'a 


bko'a 



kombroia, 

kombroiea^ 

kombfoa, 
kokombroa, 

kombrD'a, 



Kombro'a has two meanings. If Middle Voice, it means, 
I myself will not become a thief. If Passive, it must be 
translated, I shall not be robbed. 

The forms ru'ara and kokombroa both convey the idea 
of custom. It is not my habit to return things or to steal 



Id bad adjoma, 
Id bad a'djoma, 



I will not hear. 
It is not my habit to hear, henc^ 
I cannot hear, I am deaf. 

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SANTALI GBAMMAB. 



87 



Exercise 23. 



Khiinti' tengoirae, 
Am bare tengonme, 
Konacre tengbakan taheniiie, 

ArhSraraime, . 

Dangra raraiem, 

Sadom rarakona, 

Kandha perejme, 

Raskate pererlem, 

Dularte perejinrae, 

Laikom, 

Laiakome, 

Onko dod badaigia, am h5m 

badaikakome, 
Bes oko:te pera*me, 
Sonaeme, 
Sod aime, 
Katha okoime, 
O'kome; 
Oko'me, 
Rin bad aiakana, ma aio'me, 



Make the post to stand. 

Stand up yourself. 

Remain standing in the cor- 
ner. 

Undo it again. 

Loose the ox. 

Loose the horses. , 

Fill up the roorp. 

Fill us with joy. 

Fill me with love. 

Tell about them. 

Tell them. 

I know them, you also form 
their acquaintance. 

Be hospitable. 

Measure it out for him. 

Measure and calculate. 

Conceal the matter. 

Let it be your habit to hide. 

Hide yourself. 

I have not calculated the debt 
please reckon it up your- 
self. .. 



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8S 



SANTALl GRAMMAR, 



Ora'te ruarme, 
Unia' taka ruarme, 
Ape bare ruaro'pe, 
Delase ru'arme, 
Lalaime, 
Lai me, 
Alope dapala, 

Aloben kaphariaua, 
Alope kaphariau'a, 
Alom sasarhaoa, 
Alom sarhao'a. 



Go home, 

Keturn hia rupees. 

Return yourselves. 

Return I Return ! 

Let it-be your custom to tell. 

Tell now. 

Do not mutually fight, or, Do 

not cover the thing up. 
Do not quarrel. 
Do not yourselves quarrel. 
Do not praise. 
Do not praise yourself. 



Chapter XLIIL PARADIGM of " Iqi" to tell. 

The sense of a verb is often changed by the case it is 
made to govern. 

Laiaman, means, I will tell you, i. e. inform you. There 
the verb may be considered as governing the Accusative 
case of a thing, and the Dative of a person, agreeing with 
the latter. But when we say " laimeaiS " the same verb 
governs two accusatives ; and the meaning is, I will tell 
of you, i. e. inform against you. 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 89 

Tense, With an Accvsative With a Dative, 

1 Pres, Indef. laie£raean» wanting. 

I inform against you. 

2 „ Def. laie^mekanad) laiamkanan, 

I am informing against I am telling you. 

you. 

3 Imperf. Indef. Iaie£me tah^kanad, wanting 

I was in the habit of 
informing against you. 

4 „ Def. laie^mekan tahSkanan, laiamkantah^kanad 

Iwas actually informing I was telling you. 
against you. 

5 Future. laimead, laiamad 

I will inform against I will tell you. 
you. 

6 Perfect laiakat'meati, 'laiakawafmean 

I have informed I have told you. 

against you. 

7 Past Perf. laiakat!me tah^kanan, laiakavvaime tah^- 

kanan, 
I was continuing to I continued telling 
inform against you. you. 

8 Recent Past, laike^meail, laiat'mean, 

I informed against you I told you. 

9 Anterior Past, lailetimeail, wanting. 

I did inform against 
you; 

10 Pluperf. lailet*me tahSkana, laiat'rae tahSkana, 

I did continue to in- I did tell you. 
form against you. 

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90 

IdiD laiabeDCk, 
Horko laiida, 

Chaukedare laiakatlea, 

Madjhie lailede tab^kana, 

Giirue laia^kin tah^kana, 
Tehid id laiiiieai ^ 

Deku then id em giijimea, 

Ladii id ematm^ tahSkana, 
Onko do bad badaiefkoa^ 
Bako badailefrriea, 
Gapako sapmea, 

Hakoko sapafme tah6kana, 
Eta* hor then id emmea, 



SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Exercise 24. 



I will tell you. 

The people will 'inform 

against me. 
The chaukedar has informed 

against us. 
The headman did inform 

against him. 
The teacher was telling them. 

* To day I will inform against 

I will give you away to a 

Bindu. : 

I did give you sweetmeats. 

I ,do not know them. ,. , 

.They did not know you. 

To-morrow they will seize 

They did ca)tch fish for you. 

I will give you away to 
another person. 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR. , 91 

Chapter XLIV. PARTICIPLES. 

In Santali the Participles are very simple. They are 
all formed from the corresponding tense by merely omit- 
ting the final "a" 

Onko rororkan in anjomkefkoa, I heard them speaking. 
Sengel jolo*kan id nelkeda, I saw the fire burning. 
Cetcom menelikanbad badaia, I do not know in the leiast 

what you are saying. 
Topaakat' taka id damkeda, I found the buried rupees, 
XJnie rohoilef dare do haraiena, The tree which he planted 

has grown. 

The termination " kate " is used as a conjunctive Parti- 
ciple, as ; 

Umkate sapha kicriie horo*- Having bathed he put on 
s keda, clean clothes. 

" khan " is also used in a similar manner ; 

Umenkhan sapha kicri:e When he had bathed he put 
horo'keda, on clean clothes. 

"re'\ on and "tulu:" with, are used to form Adverbial 
Participles and convey the, meaning " in the act of" as. 

OdokoVele bilomena, We were late in setting out. 

Gala' tulurgile jom idiet' tahS- We ate as we went along, 
"kana, - .^ 

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92 SANTALI GRAHMAK; 

Chapter XLV. NOUNS OF AGENCY. 

These are made by adding the shortened form of the 
pronoun to the Participle in the Dual and Plural ; the 
Singular is an exception. It adds a rok to the "i" and 



This corresponds very closely with the termination 
" wala " ill Hindi. 



Ero', 

Ero'i:, 

Ero'kin, . 

Ero'ko, 

Nedelkan, 

l^edelkani:, 

Nedelkankin, 

Nenelkanko, 

]^elle«ko, 

l^elletkoko laiadida, 
Inid dellelikoko he:akana, 
Nelletpekoko laiadida, 
Apepe dellelikope laiadida, 



To sow. 

The sower. 

The two sowers. 

The three oi niore sowers. 

Seeing. 

The seeing one. 

The two seeing ones. 

The seers. 

Those who saw, or those who 

were seen. 
Those who saw them told me. 

Those that I saw have come. 

Those who saw you told me. 

You who saw them told me. 



Apepe serenelikope bhorangia Blessed are ye who sing. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAB. 93 

Chapter XLVI. ON THE PARTICLE ''aha'' 

This is the Dative form of " ka " which gives the idija of 
thoroughness. 

Active Voice. 

likai, when object is neuter, 

akae, singular pronoun, animate, 

akako, plural „ „ 

N. B. The root aha becomes alcai, in the same way that 
"bara" and such like words become "barai". 

Exercise 25. 

Puthi sapakai tahenme, Continue to hold the book. 

Gidra sapakae tahenme, Continue to hold the child. 

Gidra sa^akako tahenme, Continue to hold the children 

Noa khunti tengoakai tahen- Place this post in a standing 

me, position, and continue 

making it to stand. 
Nui gidra tengoakae tahenme Continue making this child 

to stand. 
Noko gidra tengoakako tahen- Continue making the chil- 

me. dren to stand. 

Noako naksa benge^akai ta- Continue looking at these 

henme, pictures. 

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94 SANT^iLI GRAMMAR. 

Sadom bengetakae tahenme, Continue looking at the horse, 

Merom bengetakako tahenme, Continue looking at the goats. 

Dilakai tahenme, Brave it out. 

Tulakai tahenme, ' Continue holding it up. 

Noa ora* tankhiakai tahenme, Continue to take care of this 

house. 

Jhukakae tahenme. Continue to make him brave. 

Tankhiakae tahenme, Continue taking care of him. 

Middle and Passive. 

These have akan instead of akai. 

J hukakan. tahenme, . \ Continue to be of good cour- 

age. 
Dilakan tahenme, - Continue to be brave. 

Durupakan taheDn)e, Continue to sit. 

Sontorakan tahenme. Remain careful. Take care. 

Act Daiakako tahenme, Continue striking them. 
Mid. Dalakan tahenme. Continue striking thyself. 

Fass. Dalocoakan tahenme, Continue being struck. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 95 

Chapter XLVII. ON THE FORMS akawa and akawan. 

These have a reflexive meaning, and convey the idea of 
doing or obtaining something for onesself. 

Inin dalakawatimea, ^ I have struck you for my- 

self. 

Inin laiakawat'mea, I have told you. 

Inid sapakawat'mea, - I have caught you for my- 

self. 

Act: Dalakawako tahenme, Continue striking them for 

your own benefit. 
Mid, Dalakawan . ta&enme, Continue striking for your 

own benefit. 
Pows.' Dalbcoakawan taheiime. Continue to remain being 

beaten for your own 

benefit. 

Chapter XL VIII. ON THE PARTICLES ''ka' and ''ka ". 

These give force to the verb in which they are placed ; 
they impart the idea of " thoroughness". 

Gai lagakakome, Drive the cows away and 

leave them. 

Uni then puthi idikam, Take your book to him, and 

leave it with him. 

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96 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

** ka* " is only used in transitive Verbs, it is probable that 
it is the same as " ka ", with the addition of an accusative 
neuter " a' " eg. ka a' ; contracted into " ka' ". 

Jonime, Eat thou. 

Joma'me, 'Eat some of it 

Jomka'me, Eat it up thoroughly, i. e. 

finish it. 

Dilakai tahenme, Brave it out. 

Tulakai tahenpe, Continue to hold it up. 

Hg le tulka'a, Yes, we will continue to 

hold it up. 

Chapter XLIX. ON THE PARTICLES " ke '' and " ko' ". 

We have already explained that the particle " ka " gives 
the idea of "thoroughness*'. The Particle ko* is the 
counterpart of ka\ the only diflference is that " ko' " is 
always reflexive and therefore it is a sign of the Middle 
Voice. 

Jomka*me, eat it up; here the prominent thought is 
that there is some food, the emphasis is not so much on 
the fact of eating, but on the food, to be eaten. 

Jomko'me, You yourself eat; 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



97 



The emphavsis here is not on the fact there is some food 
to be eaten, but rather on the eater. It is suggested that 
the person has the power to eat, and he is asked to use 
that power. 



Sendareko'am, 
Jomko'me, 
Jomka'me, 
Jhaware okoko'me, 

Gitiiko'me, 

He-.ko'me, 

Tengoko'me, 

Gadi tengoka'me, 
Dalkekoam ? 
Dalka'am ? 
Dalko'am ? 
Asko*me, 

JhtLkakan tahenme, 
jhtlkko'a, 

Sontorakan tahenpe. 
sontorko'a^ 

7 



Exercise 26. 

Could you go ? 

Finish eating. Mid. 

Finish eating. Act. 

Hide yourself thoroughly in 
the thicket. 

Remain lying down. 

Come and remain. 

Stand up, and remain stand- 
ing. 

Make the gari to stand still. 

Could you beat them ? Act. 

Will you beat it ? Act. 

Could you beat yourself? Mid. 

Remain hopeful. Mid. 
HSil. Be of good courage. Yes, I 
can and will be of gopd 
courage. 
HSle Be watchful. Yes, we can and 
will watch. 

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98 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Dilakaa tahenme. Hen dil- Be brave. Yes, (if necessil^y 
kea, should arise) I could brave 

it out. 
Kule odonlenkhan, dilkeam ? If a tiger came out unawares, 
H6, iii dilkea, could you brave it out ? 

Yes, I could be brave. 

Chapter L- ON THE TERMIATION 'kada'\ 

With the termination " kada " the root of the verb 
requires to be doubled, as, jom jomkada. The tense thus 
formed conveys the idea oi failure o.fter repeated attempts. 

The various pronouns can be inserted, if the object is 
Animate. In the exercises some other forms of this tense 
are given. It will be seen that in all cases the verb is 
repeated. 

Exercise 27. 

Bokoiie si sikada, bae si My younger brother attemp- 
dareada, ted to plough the field, 

but could not. 
Dakad jom jomkada, bad ni I tried to eat the cooked rice, 
dareada, but was not able to swal- 

low. 
Hirikolagit'insensenkada, I tried many times to pay 
bad sendareada, them a visit, but could 

not go. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



99 



Bejhad tud tudkada, bad 

tud damla'a, 
Bandiko dhaka dhakakada, 

bako rakap dareada, 

Kuri do saurie ir irkada, 
langaenae, • 

Bangla put hid parhao par- 

haokada, enhO bad cei 

dareada, 
Sadom id sap sapkadea, bad 

sapdareadea, 
Ror rorkadad, botorbe bad 

rordareada, 
Hakod dal dalkat'koa, bad 

dal damle£kua, 

Sen senkateye ruarena, 
He: he:kate bae he: lena, 
Ai atgie rorelikana, 
Jom jomkateye thirena, 



« / '' 



I shot several times at the 

target, but could not hit it 
They tried to roll the bundhj 

of rice, but could not lift 

it up into its place. 
The girl tried to cut the 

thatching grass, but she 

became tired. 
I tried many times to read 

the Bengali book, but 

could not learn. 
I tried in vain many times 

to catch the horse. 
I attempted to speak, but 

could not fro.ii fear. 
I tried to strike the fishes, 

but could not manage to 

hit them. 
After trying many times to 

go he returned. 
He tried many times to come, 

and after all did not come. 
He has not strength to fiiiish 

his sentences. 

He tried to eat, but had to 
desist. 

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100 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Thir thirgie bujhau'kana, It seems that his fever will 

stop. 
Get geftegi bae geflena, He almost cut himself. 

Chapter LI. ON THE TENSE ENDINGS 

''kat" B.r\d"kan'\ 

These verbal terminations always give the idea of uncer- 
tainty and chance. It must be remembered that all termin- 
ations ending in " i " or " d " point to the verb being used 
transitively, hence "ka£" is a sign of the Active ; whereas 
all verbal terminations in "n" are intransitive, hence 
" kan " points to either Middle or Passive. In the following 
exercises it will be seen that the emphatic particle "gi" is 
generally added. 

Exercise 28. 

Pase Mahajon khon taka iii Perhaps I may get some 

namkatgi, money from the Mahajon. 

Pasem dalkat'kogi, Try, you may be able to beat 

them, 
is el ilamkat'kogi, Look around, perhaps you 

may find them. 
Pnseko tamdao t5amkadingi, If haply they may find me. 
D.irjl derate ona atoren Wandering about, by chance 
senkan, I found myself at that 

village. 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 



101 



Onko jojom takregid he:- I happened to arrive just at 
kan, the time they were eating. 

Chakladare tiogid jokhe: Fortunately for me the chovv- 
gie durkan, kedar fell just as he was 

on the point of seizing me. 

l^elkede don tamak tumuke I was surprised to find him 
sio'kan, so much better that he 

was able to plough a little. 

Cekate con onteko sen kan, By chance they went that 

way. 

CHAFrER LII. STRONG AFFIRMATIONS. 



Santals have a very laconic way of answering questions. 
They often use merely the root of the verb, without any 
pronominal ending. It is especially the case when they 
intend the answer to convey a strong affirmation. There 
is sometimes a slight suspicion of anger in the tone of the 
speaker. 

Ceda' bam senlena ? Why did you not go ? Ans. Sen, ! 
I did go. Why do you accuse me wrongfully ? 

Olat'koam ? 01 ! Did you write ? I did write. 

Dalkedeam ? Dal ! Did you strike him ? Yes, I did, 
but that was my business. 

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102 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

Chapter LIIL ON THE PARTICLES " co " and " conT. 

These may in some cases be translated by " perhaps " 
as, " Hg, con " Yes, perhaps. But when they are joined to 
verbs, they add great emphasis to the sentence, and in 
many cases convey the impression of surprise. 

Ceda' bae senlena ? Senlen coe ! 

Why did he not go ? Would you be surprised to find 

that he did go ! 
Bam emadea ? Emade con. 

Did you not give to him ? I did give to him. 

Olalikoape ? 01a£ko cole. 

Did you not write to them ? We did write to them. 

The 'same with Negative. 

Senlenako ? Bacoko senlen. 

Did they go ? They did not go. 

Emafkoae ? Ban coe ema£ko. 

Did he give to them ? He did not give to them. 

01a£boakin ? Ban cokin olafibon. 

Did those two write to us ? They did not write to us. 

Dalkefbenako ? Baco ko dallet'liiS. 

Did they strike you two ? They did not strike us two. 

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santali grammar. 103 

When Doubt is Implied. 

Seno'ae ? Seno* coe ba coe. Will he go ? I don't know, 

perhaps he may go. 

Emaf koae ? EmaCkocoe ba Did he give to them ? Per- 
coe. haps he gave. 

Ola^boakin ? 01a£bo con kin Did the two write to us ? Per- 

ban con. haps the two did write. 

Dalkefbenako ? Dalletilid Did they strike you two, Per- 
con ko ban con. haps they did strike us 

two. 

Ghafier LIV. idiomatic USE of the PRONOUN. 

Cekaiam ? takad a^keda. 

. Xiiterally, What will you do ? I lost the rupee. It really 
means, What can I do ! I have lost the rupea 

Ora' red tahgkanregira he;kan. 

By chance he came when I was at home. We might 
imagine from the pronoun that the speaker meant, 
" When you came ". 

Ma akilan horko lekako kamia. 

Act you as a wise man, not, as we should gather from 
the words " ko kamia " " They act ". 

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104 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

When the nominative is Inanimate the pronoun is 
usually omitted, as, Gadi he:ena, The cart came. Some 
times the pronoun is omitted when Animate for the reason 
that some degree of fear or shame is in the mind of the 
speaker. 

Ban husitlepekhan ohope beslena. 

If... do not scrape oflf something from you by making an 
offering to the evil spirits, you will not get well. No 
person is mentioned as performing the action, even 
though the verb is in the Active Voice. 

. Isaikate h5 gogoigia, nenkate h6 gogo:gia. 

Here the meaning is, Christians as well as heathen die. 
The word gogo: generally means " kill " but here it 
means " die " It is half implied that witches are the 
cause of their death, though the speaker does not 
openly say so. 

Herel rea' nutum dumlekhan, unkin ren gidrako kala'a. 

If (she understood) mentions the name of her hus- 
band, their children will become deaf. 



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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 105 

Chapter LV. ADVERBIAL PARTICLES. 

These are very common in San tali and give special force 
to the verb. A list of the principal ones is here appended. 

ato or oto, " depart " 

Em otoanme, Give it me before you go 

away. 

bara, " continuous action " • 

Darabaraikanae, He is walking up and 

down. 

• Rorbarakedeako, They scolded him. 

tora, " with " Refers to something done at the time of 
departing, 
Idi toraime, Take it with you. 

IN eltora darkedae, The moment he saw it 

he fled. 
Hanko tora, They are departing. 

dara, " with " " The opposite of tora ". Something done 
at the time of coming. 
Agudaraime, Bring it with you. 

gela, Used with words of testing 

Atkargelakedinae, They tried me and found 

me true. 
Durup gela*me, See if you can manage to 

sit down. 

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106 SANTALI GRAMMAR, 

dapor, Give the sense of indifference. 

Go: daporenae, He died, it did not mat- 

ter in the least. 

Era daporaeme, Give it and get rid of 

him. 
atar, Has the same meaning as " dapor " and is chief- 
ly used by women. 

Bagi ataii^eme* tho ? Never mind, leave him ? 
hale, Well ! 

Coda' hale bana, Well, why not ? 

acur, " round " 

Bengef acurkedae, He looked round, 

bari:, " Almost" 

Dal barirkadidae, He almost struck me. 

lagit*, " about to " " on the point of J* 

Bangie anjom lagitlena, He would not listen, ne- 
enho id laiadea, vertheless I told hiou 

utar, *' finished " " thoroughness ". 

Sen utarenae. He has gone for good, 

hatar, " duration!' 

Durup hataro'me. Remain seated (till I 

come), 
god go6 godo' 

hod holi hodo' These have the meaning of 

gol golo' Jiaste, speed. . 

hoi holo' 

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SANTALI GRAMMAR. 107 

He: got'enako, They came immediately. 

Sen hodo'me, Go immediately. 

Sen holo'me, Go quickly. 

Calao golo'me, Go immediately. 

"* Agii hod me, Bring it quickly. 

Sap hodeme, Catch him quickly^ 

Sometimes it is used in a general sense, as ; 

Ror go£kada6, I sent word, or I gave a special 

order. 

idi, " continuity ". 

Ror idime. Keep on speaking. 

Ma calaoidi'me. Go on further. 

Banaoidilef tahSkanae, has two meanings ; 

1 He made (a basket) and took it away. 

2 He continued making (a basket) 

tana', gives the idea of " indejiniteness ". 

Pase jaha tandireye gidi Perhaps he h^s thrown 
tana'akade, him away in some 

field or other. . 
gidi, " throw away " ; 

Akrin gidikadale, We sold it at a loss. 

Binko go: gidikadea, They killed the snake 



jon, reflexive] 

Hataojonme, Take for yourself. 



and threw it away, 
for yourself. 

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108 SANTALI GRAMMAR. 

aisan, '^ in vain " 

Laga laga aisankafkoa, We hunted in vain, 
legafi " trying " ; 

Dal legafad, I will try to strike it. 

agi>, " custom '' , " Jiabit " 

Hapram khonko ror- This has been handed 
aguakada, down from the ancients. 

bote: " perhaps ", " possibly ", 

Nonkan karnilekhanem If I had done so, perhaps 
ror bote: kinam, • you would have scol- 

ded me. 
teba* " before ", with the idea of ** Tnissing " 

Aurid seteroVegikosen They departed before I 

teba'ena, arrived there. 

Jom teba'kedale, We had finished eating 

before (they came.) 
marau, ''first " ; 

Sermarea'raj i5am ma- Seek first the Kingdom 
ranlem, of heaven, 

do', ''a little'*] 

Tah^nogo'me, Remain a little longer. 



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